41 research outputs found

    Genetic Variation and Geographical Differentiation of \u3cem\u3eElymus nutans\u3c/em\u3e (Poaceae: Triticeae) from West China

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    Elymus nutans Griseb. is not only an important alpine forage grass, but also as a crucial gene pool for improving cereal crops. Understanding and maintaining the genetic diversity of the species are essential for both conservation strategy and breeding programs. However, little is known about its genetic and geographical differentiation patterns. E. nutans is a perennial, caespitose and allohexaploid (2n=6x=42) species that contains the St, H and Y genomes. It is native to temperate and tropical Asia, ranging from western and central Asia in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, from Russia in the north to India and the Himalayas areas in the south (Clayton et al. 2006). It is distributed in the north, northwest and southwest China, particularly in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. E. nutans is a valuable forage grass in the alpine regions that is resistant to cold, drought and pests, which can be used to improve cereal crops. In addition, it can play an important role in the restoration of disturbed grasslands and the establishment of artificial grasslands, especially at altitudes from 3,000 to 4,500 m (Chen and Jia 2000). During recent decades, its distribution has contracted because of over-exploitation, habitat destruction and fragmentation. Therefore, it is urgent to understand and monitor the genetic and geographical differentiation of wild germplams of E. nutans

    Genomic features of bacterial adaptation to plants

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    Author(s): Levy, A; Salas Gonzalez, I; Mittelviefhaus, M; Clingenpeel, S; Herrera Paredes, S; Miao, J; Wang, K; Devescovi, G; Stillman, K; Monteiro, F; Rangel Alvarez, B; Lundberg, DS; Lu, TY; Lebeis, S; Jin, Z; McDonald, M; Klein, AP; Feltcher, ME; Rio, TG; Grant, SR; Doty, SL; Ley, RE; Zhao, B; Venturi, V; Pelletier, DA; Vorholt, JA; Tringe, SG; Woyke, T; Dangl, JL | Abstract: © 2017 The Author(s). Plants intimately associate with diverse bacteria. Plant-associated bacteria have ostensibly evolved genes that enable them to adapt to plant environments. However, the identities of such genes are mostly unknown, and their functions are poorly characterized. We sequenced 484 genomes of bacterial isolates from roots of Brassicaceae, poplar, and maize. We then compared 3,837 bacterial genomes to identify thousands of plant-associated gene clusters. Genomes of plant-associated bacteria encode more carbohydrate metabolism functions and fewer mobile elements than related non-plant-associated genomes do. We experimentally validated candidates from two sets of plant-associated genes: one involved in plant colonization, and the other serving in microbe-microbe competition between plant-associated bacteria. We also identified 64 plant-associated protein domains that potentially mimic plant domains; some are shared with plant-associated fungi and oomycetes. This work expands the genome-based understanding of plant-microbe interactions and provides potential leads for efficient and sustainable agriculture through microbiome engineering

    Improving the corrosion resistance of MgZn1.2GdxZr0.18 (x =0, 0.8, 1.4, 2.0) alloys via Gd additions

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    Funding Information: This research was financially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFB0301101 ), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51971054 ) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant Nos. N180904006 and N2009006 ). Publisher Copyright: © 2020 Elsevier LtdEffects of Gd addition on microstructure, corrosion behavior and mechanism of cast and extruded MgZn1.2GdxZr0.18 alloys are investigated through microstructure observation, weight loss and electrochemical tests. Increasing Gd from 0 to 2.0 at.%, grains are refined, MgZn2 phase, W-phase and X-phase are formed successively, and basal texture intensity is decreased. The significantly decreased grain size by extrusion and Gd addition induces formation of protective Gd2O3 and MgO layer. The extruded MgZn1.2Gd2.0Zr0.18 alloy shows decreased corrosion rate of 3.72 ± 0.36 mm/year, owing to fine and homogeneous microstructure, dual-role (micro-anode and barrier) of X-phase, compact oxidation layer and basal crystallographic texture.Peer reviewe

    Identification and Characterization of Switchgrass histone H3 and CENH3 Genes

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    Switchgrass is one of the most promising energy crops and only recently has been employed for biofuel production. The draft genome of switchgrass was recently released; however, relatively few switchgrass genes have been functionally characterized. CENH3, the major histone protein found in centromeres, along with canonical H3 and other histones, plays an important role in maintaining genome stability and integrity. Despite their importance, the histone H3 genes of switchgrass have remained largely uninvestigated. In this study, we identified 17 putative switchgrass histone H3 genes in silico. Of these genes, 15 showed strong homology to histone H3 genes including six H3.1 genes, three H3.3 genes, four H3.3-like genes and two H3.1-like genes. The remaining two genes were found to be homologous to CENH3. RNA-seq data derived from lowland cultivar Alamo and upland cultivar Dacotah allowed us to identify SNPs in the histone H3 genes and compare their differential gene expression. Interestingly, we also found that overexpression of switchgrass histone H3 and CENH3 genes in N. benthamiana could trigger cell death of the transformed plant cells. Localization and deletion analyses of the histone H3 and CENH3 genes revealed that nuclear localization of the N-terminal tail is essential and sufficient for triggering the cell death phenotype. Our results deliver insight into the mechanisms underlying the histone-triggered cell death phenotype and provide a foundation for further studying the variations of the histone H3 and CENH3 genes in switchgrass

    Dynamic behaviors of a discrete Lotka-Volterra competitive system with the effect of toxic substances and feedback controls

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    Abstract By noting the fact that the intrinsic growth rate are not positive everywhere, we revisit Lotka-Volterra competitive system with the effect of toxic substances and feedback controls. The corresponding results about permanence and extinction for the species given in (Chen and Chen in Int. J. Biomath. 8(1):1550012, 2015) are extended. Furthermore, a very important fact is found in our results, that is, the feedback controls and toxic substances have no effect on the permanence and extinction of species. Moreover, we also derive sufficient conditions for the global stability of positive solutions. Finally, some numerical simulations show the feasibility of our main results

    Nine Genes Mediate the Therapeutic Effects of Iodine-131 Radiotherapy in Thyroid Carcinoma Patients

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    Background. Thyroid carcinoma (THCA) is one of the most common malignancies of the endocrine system, which is usually treated by surgery combined with iodine-131 (I131) radiotherapy. Aims. This study is aimed at exploring the potential targets of I131 radiotherapy in THCA. Methods. The RNA-sequencing data of THCA in The Cancer Genome Atlas database (including 568 THCA samples) was downloaded. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the tumour samples whether or not subjected to I131 radiotherapy were identified using edgeR package. Using the WGCNA package, the module that was relevant with I131 radiotherapy was selected. The intersection genes of the hub module nodes and the DEGs were obtained as hub genes, followed by the function and pathway enrichment analyses using the clusterProfiler package. Moreover, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network for the hub genes was constructed using Cytoscape software. In addition, more important hub genes were analysed with function mining using the GenCLiP2 online tool. The qPCR analysis was used to verify the mRNA expression of more important hub genes in THCA tissues. Results. There were 500 DEGs (167 upregulated and 333 downregulated) between the two groups. WGCNA analysis showed that the green module (428 nodes) exhibited the most significant correlation with I131 radiotherapy. A PPI network was built after the identification of 53 hub genes. In the PPI network, CDH5, KDR, CD34, FLT4, EMCN, FLT1, ROBO4, PTPRB, and CD93 exhibited higher degrees, which were mainly implicated in the vascular function. The relative expression of nine mRNAs in the THCA tissues treated with I131 was lower. Conclusion. I131 radiotherapy might exert therapeutic effects by targeting CDH5, KDR, CD34, FLT4, EMCN, FLT1, ROBO4, PTPRB, and CD93 in THCA patients

    A Large Sample Retrospective Study on the Distinction of Voriconazole Concentration in Asian Patients from Different Clinical Departments

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    Voriconazole (VRZ) is widely used to prevent and treat invasive fungal infections; however, there are a few studies examining the variability and influencing the factors of VRZ plasma concentrations across different clinical departments. This study aimed to evaluate distinction of VRZ concentrations in different clinical departments and provide a reference for its reasonable use. From 1 May 2014 to 31 December 2020, VRZ standard rates and factors affecting the VRZ trough concentration were analyzed, and a multiple linear regression model was constructed. The standard rates of VRZ in most departments were above 60%. A total of 676 patients with 1212 VRZ trough concentrations using a dosing regimen of 200 mg q12h from seven departments were enrolled in the correlation analysis. The concentration distribution varied significantly among different departments (p < 0.001). Fifteen factors, including department, CYP2C19 phenotype, and gender, correlated with VRZ concentration. A multiple linear regression model was established as follows: VRZ trough concentration = 5.195 + 0.049 × age + 0.007 × alanine aminotransferase + 0.010 × total bilirubin − 0.100 × albumin − 0.004 × gamma-glutamyl transferase. According to these indexes, we can predict possible changes in VRZ trough concentration and adjust its dosage precisely and individually
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