1,044 research outputs found

    Synthesis of 19F in Wolf-Rayet stars

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    Meynet and Arnould (1993) have suggested that Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars could significantly contaminate the Galaxy with 19F. In their scenario, 19F is synthesized at the beginning of the He-burning phase from the 14N left over by the previous CNO-burning core, and is ejected in the interstellar medium when the star enters its WC phase. Recourse to CNO seeds makes the 19F yields metallicity-dependent. These yields are calculated on grounds of detailed stellar evolutionary sequences for an extended range of initial masses (from 25 to 120 Msol) and metallicities (Z = 0.008, 0.02 and 0.04). The adopted mass loss rate prescription enables to account for the observed variations of WR populations in different environments. The 19F abundance in the WR winds of 60 Msol model stars is found to be about 10 to 70 times higher than its initial value, depending on the metallicity. This prediction is used in conjunction with a very simple model for the chemical evolution of the Galaxy to predict that WR stars could be significant (dominant?) contributors to the solar system fluorine content. We also briefly discuss the implications of our model on the possible detection of fluorine at high redshift.Comment: 2 figures; requires LaTeX A&A class file; accepted for publication in Astron. Astrophy

    Pre-suprenova evolution of rotating massive stars

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    The Geneva evolutionary code has been modified to study the advanced stages (Ne, O, Si burnings) of rotating massive stars. Here we present the results of four 20 solar mass stars at solar metallicity with initial rotational velocities of 0, 100, 200 and 300 km/s in order to show the crucial role of rotation in stellar evolution. As already known, rotation increases mass loss and core masses (Meynet and Maeder 2000). A fast rotating 20 solar mass star has the same central evolution as a non-rotating 26 solar mass star. Rotation also increases strongly net total metal yields. Furthermore, rotation changes the SN type so that more SNIb are predicted (see Meynet and Maeder 2003 and N. Prantzos and S. Boissier 2003). Finally, SN1987A-like supernovae progenitor colour can be explained in a single rotating star scenario.Comment: To appear in proceedings of IAU Colloquium 192, "Supernovae (10 years of 1993J)", Valencia, Spain 22-26 April 2003, eds. J.M. Marcaide, K.W. Weiler, 5 pages, 8 figure

    Stellar evolution with rotation X: Wolf-Rayet star populations at solar metallicity

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    We examine the properties of Wolf--Rayet (WR) stars predicted by models of rotating stars taking account of the new mass loss rates for O--type stars and WR stars (Vink et al. \cite{Vink00}, \cite{Vink01}; Nugis & Lamers \cite{NuLa00}) and of the wind anisotropies induced by rotation. We find that the rotation velocities vv of WR stars are modest, i.e. about 50 km s1^{-1}, not very dependant on the initial vv and masses. For the most massive stars, the evolution of vv is very strongly influenced by the values of the mass loss rates; below \sim12 M_\odot the evolution of rotation during the MS phase and later phases is dominated by the internal coupling. Massive stars with extreme rotation may skip the LBV phase. Models having a typical vv for the O--type stars have WR lifetimes on the average two times longer than for non--rotating models. The increase of the WR lifetimes is mainly due to that of the H--rich eWNL phase. Rotation allows a transition WN/WC phase to be present for initial masses lower than 60 M_\odot. The durations of the other WR subphases are less affected by rotation. The mass threshold for forming WR stars is lowered from 37 to 22 M_\odot for typical rotation. The comparisons of the predicted number ratios WR/O, WN/WC and of the number of transition WN/WC stars show very good agreement with models with rotation, while this is not the case for models with the present--day mass loss rates and no rotation. As to the chemical abundances in WR stars, rotation brings only very small changes for WN stars, since they have equilibrium CNO values. However, WC stars with rotation have on average lower C/He and O/He ratios. The luminosity distribution of WC stars is also influenced by rotation.Comment: 17 pages, 20 figures, accepted for publication in A&

    The production of short-lived radionuclides by new non-rotating and rotating Wolf-Rayet model stars

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    It has been speculated that WR winds may have contaminated the forming solar system, in particular with short-lived radionuclides (half-lives in the approximate 10^5 - 10^8 y range) that are responsible for a class of isotopic anomalies found in some meteoritic materials. We revisit the capability of the WR winds to eject these radionuclides using new models of single non-exploding WR stars with metallicity Z = 0.02. The earlier predictions for non-rotating WR stars are updated, and models for rotating such stars are used for the first time in this context. We find that (1) rotation has no significant influence on the short-lived radionuclide production by neutron capture during the core He-burning phase, and (2) 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, and 107Pd can be wind-ejected by a variety of WR stars at relative levels that are compatible with the meteoritic analyses for a period of free decay of around 10^5 y between production and incorporation into the forming solar system solid bodies. We confirm the previously published conclusions that the winds of WR stars have a radionuclide composition that can meet the necessary condition for them to be a possible contaminating agent of the forming solar system. Still, it remains to be demonstrated from detailed models that this is a sufficient condition for these winds to have provided a level of pollution that is compatible with the observations.Comment: 8 pages, 8 figure

    Stellar evolution with rotation and magnetic fields II: General equations for the transport by Tayler--Spruit dynamo

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    We further develop the Tayler--Spruit dynamo theory, based on the most efficient instability for generating magnetic fields in radiative layers of differentially rotating stars. We avoid the simplifying assumptions that either the μ\mu-- or the TT--gradient dominates, but we treat the general case and we also account for the nonadiabatic effects, which favour the growth of the magnetic field. Stars with a magnetic field rotate almost as a solid body. Several of their properties (size of the core, MS lifetimes, tracks, abundances) are closer to those of models without rotation than with rotation only. In particular, the observed N/C or N/H excesses in OB stars are better explained by our previous models with rotation only than by the present models with magnetic fields that predict no nitrogen excesses. We show that there is a complex feedback loop between the magnetic instability and the thermal instability driving meridional circulation. This opens the possibility for further magnetic models, but at this stage we do not know the relative importance of the magnetic fields due to the Tayler instability in stellar interiors.Comment: 14 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysic

    Can very massive stars avoid Pair-instability Supernovae?

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    Very massive primordial stars (140M<M<260M140 M_{\odot} < M < 260 M_{\odot}) are supposed to end their lives as pair-instability supernovae. Such an event can be traced by a typical chemical signature in low metallicity stars, but at the present time, this signature is lacking in the extremely metal-poor stars we are able to observe. Does it mean that those very massive objects did not form, contrarily to the primordial star formation scenarios? Could they avoid this tragical fate? We explore the effects of rotation, anisotropic mass loss and magnetic fields on the core size of a very massive Population III model, in order to check if its mass is sufficiently modified to prevent the pair instability. We obtain that a Population III model of 150M150 M_{\odot} with υ/υcrit=0.56\upsilon/\upsilon_{\rm crit}=0.56 computed with the inclusion of wind anisotropy and Tayler-Spruit dynamo avoids the pair instability explosion.Comment: to be published in the conference proceedings of First Stars III, Santa Fe, 200

    GRB progenitors at low metallicities

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    We calculated pre-supernova evolution models of single rotating massive stars. These models reproduce observations during the early stages of the evolution very well, in particular Wolf--Rayet (WR) populations and ratio between type II and type Ib,c supernovae at different metallicities (Z). Using these models we found the following results concerning long and soft gamma--ray burst (GRB) progenitors: - GRBs coming from WO--type (SNIc) WR stars are only produced at low Z (LMC or lower). - The upper metallicity limit for GRBs is reduced to Z ~ 0.004 (SMC) when the effects of magnetic fields are included. - GRBs are predicted from the second (and probably the first) stellar generation onwards.Comment: 5 pages, 1 figure, to appear in the proceedings of "Swift and GRBs: Unveiling the Relativistic Universe", San Servolo, Venice, 5-9 June 200

    Combining observational techniques to constrain convection in evolved massive star models

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    Recent stellar evolution computations indicate that massive stars in the range ~ 20 - 30 Msun are located in the blue supergiant (BSG) region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram at two different stages of their life: immediately after the main sequence (MS, group 1) and during a blueward evolution after the red supergiant phase (group 2). From the observation of the pulsationnal properties of a subgroup of variable BSGs (alpha Cyg variables), one can deduce that these stars belongs to group 2. It is however difficult to simultaneously fit the observed surface abundances and gravity for these stars, and this allows to constrain the physical processes of chemical species transport in massive stars. We will show here that the surface abundances are extremely sensitive to the physics of convection, particularly the location of the intermediate convective shell that appears at the ignition of the hydrogen shell burning after the MS. Our results show that the use of the Ledoux criterion to determine the convective regions in the stellar models leads to a better fit of the surface abundances for alpha Cyg variables than the Schwarzschild one.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures, to appear in IAUS 307 proceeding
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