76,990 research outputs found

    Increased Metabolic Rate in X-linked Hypophosphatemic Mice

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    Hyp mice are a model for human X-linked hypophosphatemia, the most common form of vitamin D-resistant rickets. It has previously been observed that Hyp mice have a greater food consumption per gram body weight than do normal mice. This led to the search for some alteration in metabolism in Hyp mice. We found that oxygen consumption was significantly higher in Hyp mice than in normal C57BL/6J mice and this was accompanied by an increased percentage of cardiac output being delivered to organs of heat production (liver and skeletal muscle), to the skin, and to bone and a decreased percentage to the gastrointestinal tract of Hyp mice. The increased oxygen consumption in Hyp mice was not associated with increased plasma free T4 levels and was not affected by alterations in plasma phosphate produced by a low phosphate diet. The cause of the increased oxygen consumption is not known, and the role that this change and reported changes in distribution of cardiac output may play in the development of X-linked hypophosphatemia is also unknown. Study of the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory systems in Hyp mice should help increase understanding of the underlying mechanisms of this disease

    Density, short-range order and the quark-gluon plasma

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    We study the thermal part of the energy density spatial correlator in the quark-gluon plasma. We describe its qualitative form at high temperatures. We then calculate it out to distances approx. 1.5/T in SU(3) gauge theory lattice simulations for the range of temperatures 0.9<= T/T_c<= 2.2. The vacuum-subtracted correlator exhibits non-monotonic behavior, and is almost conformal by 2T_c. Its broad maximum at r approx. 0.6/T suggests a dense medium with only weak short-range order, similar to a non-relativistic fluid near the liquid-gas phase transition, where eta/s is minimal.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Listeners normalize speech for contextual speech rate even without an explicit recognition task

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    Speech can be produced at different rates. Listeners take this rate variation into account by normalizing vowel duration for contextual speech rate: An ambiguous Dutch word /m?t/ is perceived as short /mAt/ when embedded in a slow context, but long /ma:t/ in a fast context. Whilst some have argued that this rate normalization involves low-level automatic perceptual processing, there is also evidence that it arises at higher-level cognitive processing stages, such as decision making. Prior research on rate-dependent speech perception has only used explicit recognition tasks to investigate the phenomenon, involving both perceptual processing and decision making. This study tested whether speech rate normalization can be observed without explicit decision making, using a cross-modal repetition priming paradigm. Results show that a fast precursor sentence makes an embedded ambiguous prime (/m?t/) sound (implicitly) more /a:/-like, facilitating lexical access to the long target word "maat" in a (explicit) lexical decision task. This result suggests that rate normalization is automatic, taking place even in the absence of an explicit recognition task. Thus, rate normalization is placed within the realm of everyday spoken conversation, where explicit categorization of ambiguous sounds is rare

    Cross Calibration of Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes with Fermi

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    An updated model for the synchrotron and inverse Compton emission from a population of high energy electrons of the Crab Nebula is used to reproduce the measured spectral energy distribution from radio to high energy gamma-rays. By comparing the predicted inverse Compton component with recent Fermi measurements of the nebula's emission, it is possible to determine the average magnetic field in the nebula and to derive the underlying electron energy distribution. The model calculation can then be used to cross calibrate the Fermi observations with ground based air shower measurements. The resulting energy calibration factors are derived and can be used for combining broad energy measurements taken with Fermi in conjunction with ground based measurements.Comment: 2009 Fermi Symposium, eConf Proceedings C091122, 5 pages, 5 figures, 3 table

    Integrability of the critical point of the Kagom\'e three-state Potts mode

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    The vicinity of the critical point of the three-state Potts model on a Kagom\'e lattice is studied by mean of Random Matrix Theory. Strong evidence that the critical point is integrable is given.Comment: 1 LaTex file + 3 eps files 7 page

    Binding between two-component bosons in one dimension

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    We investigate the ground state of one-dimensional few-atom Bose-Bose mixtures under harmonic confinement throughout the crossover from weak to strong inter-species attraction. The calculations are based on the numerically exact multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree method. For repulsive components we detail the condition for the formation of a molecular Tonks-Girardeau gas in the regime of intermediate inter-species interactions, and the formation of a molecular condensate for stronger coupling. Beyond a critical inter-species attraction, the system collapses to an overall bound state. Different pathways emerge for unequal particle numbers and intra-species interactions. In particular, for mixtures with one attractive component, this species can be viewed as an effective potential dimple in the trap center for the other, repulsive component.Comment: 10 pages, 10 figure

    Exploiting the synergy between carboplatin and ABT-737 in the treatment of ovarian carcinomas

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    Platinum drug-resistance in ovarian cancers is a major factor contributing to chemotherapeutic resistance of recurrent disease. Members of the Bcl-2 family such as the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-XL have been shown to play a role in this resistance. Consequently, concurrent inhibition of Bcl-XL in combination with standard chemotherapy may improve treatment outcomes for ovarian cancer patients. Here, we develop a mathematical model to investigate the potential of combination therapy with ABT-737, a small molecule inhibitor of Bcl-XL, and carboplatin, a platinum-based drug, on a simulated tumor xenograft. The model is calibrated against in vivo\ud experimental data, wherein tumor xenografts were established in mice and treated with ABT-737 and carboplatin on a fixed periodic schedule, alone or in combination, and tumor sizes recorded regularly. We show that the validated model can be used to predict the minimum drug load that will achieve a predetermined level of tumor growth inhibition, thereby maximizing the synergy between the two drugs. Our simulations suggest that the time of infusion of each carboplatin dose is a critical parameter, with an 8-hour infusion of carboplatin administered each week combined with a daily bolus dose of ABT-737 predicted to minimize residual disease. We also investigate the potential of ABT-737 co-therapy with carboplatin to prevent or delay the onset of carboplatin-resistance under two scenarios. When resistance is acquired as a result of aberrant DNA-damage repair in cells treated with carboplatin, the model is used to identify drug delivery schedules that induce tumor remission with even low doses of combination therapy. When resistance is intrinsic, due to a pre-existing cohort of resistant cells, tumor remission is no longer feasible, but our model can be used to identify dosing strategies that extend disease-free survival periods. These results underscore the potential of our model to accelerate the development of novel therapeutics such as ABT-737, by predicting optimal treatment strategies when these drugs are given in combination with currently approved cancer medications

    The valvula cerebelli of the spiny eel, Macrognathus aculeatus, receives primary lateral-line afferents from the rostrum of the upper jaw

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    In the spiny eel, Macrognathus aculeatus, anterodorsal and (to a lesser degree) anteroventral lateralline nerves project massively to the granular layer of the valvula cerebelli, throughout its rostrocaudal extent. The posterior lateral-line nerve terminates in the corpus cerebelli. Thus, valvula and corpus cerebelli are supplied with mechanosensory input of different peripheral origins. An analysis of the taxonomic distribution of experimentally determined primary lateral-line input to the three parts of the teleostean cerebellum reveals that the eminentia granularis always receives such input, and that the corpus cerebelli is the recipient of primary lateral-line input in many teleosts. The valvula, however, receives primary lateral-line afferents in only two examined species. In M. aculeatus, the massive lateral-line input to the valvula probably originates in mechanoreceptors located in the elongated rostrum of the upper jaw, a characteristic feature of mastacembeloid fishes. This projection to the valvula may therefore represent a unique specialization that arose with the evolution of the peculiar rostrum

    A model checker for performance and dependability properties

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    Markov chains are widely used in the context of performance and reliability evaluation of systems of various nature. Model checking of such chains with respect to a given (branching) temporal logic formula has been proposed for both the discrete [8] and the continuous time setting [1], [3]. In this short paper, we describe the prototype model checker EMC2E \vdash M C^2 for discrete and continuous-time Markov chains, where properties are expressed in appropriate extensions of CTL.We illustrate the general benefits of this approach and discuss the structure of the tool