16,894 research outputs found

    Quantum games and quantum algorithms

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    A quantum algorithm for an oracle problem can be understood as a quantum strategy for a player in a two-player zero-sum game in which the other player is constrained to play classically. I formalize this correspondence and give examples of games (and hence oracle problems) for which the quantum player can do better than would be possible classically. The most remarkable example is the Bernstein-Vazirani quantum search algorithm which I show creates no entanglement at any timestep.Comment: 10 pages, plain TeX; to appear in the AMS Contemporary Mathematics volume: Quantum Computation and Quantum Information Science; revised remarks about other quantum games formalisms; for related work see http://math.ucsd.edu/~dmeyer/research.htm

    Quantum computing classical physics

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    In the past decade quantum algorithms have been found which outperform the best classical solutions known for certain classical problems as well as the best classical methods known for simulation of certain quantum systems. This suggests that they may also speed up the simulation of some classical systems. I describe one class of discrete quantum algorithms which do so--quantum lattice gas automata--and show how to implement them efficiently on standard quantum computers.Comment: 13 pages, plain TeX, 10 PostScript figures included with epsf.tex; for related work see http://math.ucsd.edu/~dmeyer/research.htm

    Quantum mechanics of lattice gas automata. II. Boundary conditions and other inhomogeneities

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    We continue our analysis of the physics of quantum lattice gas automata (QLGA). Previous work has been restricted to periodic or infinite lattices; simulation of more realistic physical situations requires finite sizes and non-periodic boundary conditions. Furthermore, envisioning a QLGA as a nanoscale computer architecture motivates consideration of inhomogeneities in the `substrate'; this translates into inhomogeneities in the local evolution rules. Concentrating on the one particle sector of the model, we determine the various boundary conditions and rule inhomogeneities which are consistent with unitary global evolution. We analyze the reflection of plane waves from boundaries, simulate wave packet refraction across inhomogeneities, and conclude by discussing the extension of these results to multiple particles.Comment: 24 pages, plain TeX, 9 PostScript figures included with epsf.tex (ignore the under/overfull \vbox error messages), 3 additional large figures available upon request or from http://math.ucsd.edu/~dmeyer/papers/papers.htm

    A Model of Consistent Node Types in Signed Directed Social Networks

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    Signed directed social networks, in which the relationships between users can be either positive (indicating relations such as trust) or negative (indicating relations such as distrust), are increasingly common. Thus the interplay between positive and negative relationships in such networks has become an important research topic. Most recent investigations focus upon edge sign inference using structural balance theory or social status theory. Neither of these two theories, however, can explain an observed edge sign well when the two nodes connected by this edge do not share a common neighbor (e.g., common friend). In this paper we develop a novel approach to handle this situation by applying a new model for node types. Initially, we analyze the local node structure in a fully observed signed directed network, inferring underlying node types. The sign of an edge between two nodes must be consistent with their types; this explains edge signs well even when there are no common neighbors. We show, moreover, that our approach can be extended to incorporate directed triads, when they exist, just as in models based upon structural balance or social status theory. We compute Bayesian node types within empirical studies based upon partially observed Wikipedia, Slashdot, and Epinions networks in which the largest network (Epinions) has 119K nodes and 841K edges. Our approach yields better performance than state-of-the-art approaches for these three signed directed networks.Comment: To appear in the IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Network Analysis and Mining (ASONAM), 201
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