7,777 research outputs found

    Recursive Numerical Evaluation of the Cumulative Bivariate Normal Distribution

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    We propose an algorithm for evaluation of the cumulative bivariate normal distribution, building upon Marsaglia's ideas for evaluation of the cumulative univariate normal distribution. The algorithm is mathematically transparent, delivers competitive performance and can easily be extended to arbitrary precision.Comment: 12 pages, 1 figur

    A Study of Energy and Locality Effects using Space-filling Curves

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    The cost of energy is becoming an increasingly important driver for the operating cost of HPC systems, adding yet another facet to the challenge of producing efficient code. In this paper, we investigate the energy implications of trading computation for locality using Hilbert and Morton space-filling curves with dense matrix-matrix multiplication. The advantage of these curves is that they exhibit an inherent tiling effect without requiring specific architecture tuning. By accessing the matrices in the order determined by the space-filling curves, we can trade computation for locality. The index computation overhead of the Morton curve is found to be balanced against its locality and energy efficiency, while the overhead of the Hilbert curve outweighs its improvements on our test system.Comment: Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE International Parallel & Distributed Processing Symposium Workshops (IPDPSW

    Local and systemic effects of endotoxin mastitis on the chemiluminescence of milk and blood neutrophils in dairy cows.

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    The local and systemic effects of intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection on the chemiluminescence (CL) of milk and blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were investigated in six healthy early lactation cows. Clinical signs of acute mastitis such as fever, increased heart rate and a decreased milk production were observed in all cows. Before LPS challenge, the CL activity of milk PMN was significantly lower than that of blood PMN (P < 0.01). A significant negative correlation was found between pre-challenge milk and blood PMN CL and, the decreased milk production in unchallenged quarters. The CL activity of milk PMN from LPS-injected quarters increased following LPS challenge, whereas it remained unchanged in control quarters. The CL activity of blood PMN showed a biphasic increase, with two peaks and a valley below pre-challenge CL activity (P < 0.01). At post-challenge hours (PCH) 6 and 12, the CL activity of milk PMN from LPS-injected quarters exceeded that of blood PMN (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). The decreased CL activity of blood PMN and the enhanced CL activity of milk PMN during endotoxin-induced mastitis was reflected by changes in the shape of the CL curve. In blood PMN, a decrease of the second peak of the CL curve suggests that the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2O2 system is impaired during endotoxin-induced mastitis. In contrast, the MPO-H2O2 system was enhanced in milk PMN from challenged quarters. The highest duration and intensity of reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) production was observed in milk PMN from LPS-injected quarters at PCH 12. The increased viability of PMN in LPS-injected quarters and to a lesser extent in control quarters suggests possible effects of both facilitated diapedesis and inflammatory mediators on milk PMN survival. In conclusion, our results suggest that a combination of local and systemic action of E. coli endotoxin is involved in the priming of milk PMN during mastitis