24,249 research outputs found

    Market Situation and Outlook for Hogs, Poultry and Small Ruminants

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    Understanding the Market for Holstein Steers

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    A semi-structured interview process was combined with an econometric analysis to document the newly changed structure of the Holstein sector, to evaluate existing quality perceptions, and to assess the impact that recent changes in production practices have had on prices of Holstein steers. Results suggest that finished Holstein steer prices are driven by many of the same market factors as native steers, overturning some common quality misconceptions. The shift towards the calf-fed production model appears to have greatly affected the market for backgrounded Holstein steers, but had little impact on the prices for light Holstein feeder steers.Marketing,

    UNDERSTANDING THE MARKET FOR HOLSTEIN STEERS

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    A semi-structured interview process was combined with an econometric analysis to document the newly changed structure of the Holstein sector, to evaluate existing quality perceptions, and to assess the impact that recent changes in production practices have had on prices of Holstein steers. Results suggest that finished Holstein steer prices are driven by many of the same market factors as native steers, overturning some common quality misconceptions. The shift towards the calf-fed production model appears to have greatly affected the market for backgrounded Holstein steers, but had little impact on the prices for light Holstein feeder steers.Livestock Production/Industries, Marketing,

    Market Potential for Locally Produced Meat Products

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    The goal of this research was to guide livestock producers in marketing, product design and pricing decisions. Tools included a focus group, a consumer taste-testing and willingness-to-pay survey, and a restaurant survey. Experience attributes of locally produced ground beef were especially competitive, and demand for credence attributes packaged under the "local" label appears consistent with a niche market that could justify verification programs. Restaurants are a potentially receptive outlet for local meats, allowing producers to avoid the barriers to entry in mainstream grocery outlets.Agribusiness,

    Role of electrostatics in the texture of islands in free standing ferroelectric liquid crystal films

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    Curved textures of ferroelectric smectic C* liquid crystals produce space charge when they involve divergence of the spontaneous polarization field. Impurity ions can partially screen this space charge, reducing long range interactions to local ones. Through studies of the textures of islands on very thin free-standing smectic films, we see evidence of this effect, in which materials with a large spontaneous polarization have static structures described by a large effective bend elastic constant. To address this issue, we calculated the electrostatic free energy of a free standing film of ferroelectric liquid crystal, showing how the screened coulomb interaction contributes a term to the effective bend elastic constant, in the static long wavelength limit. We report experiments which support the main features of this model

    Dynamics of the molecular orientation field coupled to ions in two-dimensional ferroelectric liquid crystals

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    Molecular orientation fluctuations in ferroelectric smectic liquid crystals produce space charges, due to the divergence of the spontaneous polarization. These space charges interact with mobile ions, so that one must consider the coupled dynamics of the orientation and ionic degrees of freedom. Previous theory and light scattering experiments on thin free-standing films of ferroelectric liquid crystals have not included this coupling, possibly invalidating their quantitative conclusions. We consider the most important case of very slow ionic dynamics, compared to rapid orientational fluctuations, and focus on the use of a short electric field pulse to quench orientational fluctuations. We find that the resulting change in scattered light intensity must include a term due to the quasistatic ionic configuration, which has previously been ignored. In addition to developing the general theory, we present a simple model to demonstrate the role of this added term

    The effect of internal gravity waves on cloud evolution in sub-stellar atmospheres

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    Context. Sub-stellar objects exhibit photometric variability which is believed to be caused by a number of processes such as magnetically-driven spots or inhomogeneous cloud coverage. Recent sub-stellar models have shown that turbulent flows and waves, including internal gravity waves, may play an important role in cloud evolution.Aims. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of internal gravity waves on dust cloud nucleation and dust growth, and whether observations of the resulting cloud structures could be used to recover atmospheric density information.Methods. For a simplified atmosphere in two dimensions, we numerically solve the governing fluid equations to simulate the effect on dust nucleation and mantle growth as a result of the passage of an internal gravity wave. Furthermore, we derive an expression that relates the properties of the wave-induced cloud structures to observable parameters in order to deduce the atmospheric density.Results. Numerical simulations show that the density, pressure and temperature variations caused by gravity waves lead to an increase of dust nucleation by up to a factor 20, and dust mantle growth rate by up to a factor 1:6, compared to their equilibrium values. Through an exploration of the wider sub-stellar parameter space, we show that in absolute terms, the increase in dust nucleation due to internal gravity waves is stronger in cooler (T dwarfs) and TiO2-rich sub-stellar atmospheres. The relative increase however is greater in warm(L dwarf) and TiO2-poor atmospheres due to conditions less suited for efficient nucleation at equilibrium. These variations lead to banded areas in which dust formation is much more pronounced, and lead to banded cloud structures similar to those observed on Earth. Conclusions. Using the proposed method, potential observations of banded clouds could be used to estimate the atmospheric density of sub-stellar objects

    Implementing Student-Produced Video Projects in Language Courses

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    The Kentucky Agricultural Economic Outlook for 2005

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