17 research outputs found

    Bedrock geology of the Bethel quadrangle, Maine

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    Maine Geological Survey, Open-File Map 20-11.https://digitalmaine.com/mgs_maps/3125/thumbnail.jp

    Bedrock geology of the Bethel quadrangle, Maine

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    Maine Geological Survey, Open-File Map 20-11.https://digitalmaine.com/mgs_maps/3125/thumbnail.jp

    Identification of the Molecular and Genetic Basis of PX2, a Glycosphingolipid Blood Group Antigen Lacking on Globoside-deficient Erythrocytes

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    The x2 glycosphingolipid is expressed on erythrocytes from individuals of all common blood group phenotypes and elevated on cells of the rare P/P1/P(k)-negative p blood group phenotype. Globoside or P antigen is synthesized by UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:globotriaosylceramide 3-ő≤-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase encoded by B3GALNT1. It is the most abundant non-acid glycosphingolipid on erythrocytes and displays the same terminal disaccharide, GalNAcő≤3Gal, as x2. We encountered a patient with mutations in B3GALNT1 causing the rare P-deficient P1 (k) phenotype and whose pre-transfusion plasma was unexpectedly incompatible with p erythrocytes. The same phenomenon was also noted in seven other unrelated P-deficient individuals. Thin-layer chromatography, mass spectrometry and flow cytometry was used to show that the naturally-occurring antibodies made by p individuals recognise x2 and sialylated forms of x2, while x2 is lacking on P-deficient erythrocytes. Overexpression of B3GALNT1 resulted in synthesis of both P and x2. Knockdown experiments with siRNA against B3GALNT1 diminished x2 levels. We conclude that x2 fulfills blood group criteria and is synthesized by ő≤1,3GalNAc-T1. Based on this linkage, we proposed that x2 joins P in the GLOB blood group system (ISBT 028) and is renamed PX2 (GLOB2). Thus, in the absence of a functional P synthase neither P nor PX2 are formed. As a consequence, naturally-occurring anti-P and anti-PX2 can be made. Until the clinical significance of anti-PX2 is known, we also recommend that rare P1 (k) or P2 (k) RBC units are preferentially selected for transfusion to P(k) patients since p RBCs may pose a risk for hemolytic transfusion reactions due to their elevated PX2 levels

    Blood on the Tracks: Turn-of-the-Century Streetcar Injuries, Claims, and Litigation in Alameda County, California

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