9 research outputs found

    Binary Diamondoid Building Blocks for Molecular Gels

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    Adamantane is a type of diamondoid molecules that has a cage or globular shape with a diameter of 6.34 ± 0.04 Å. Anisotropic interactions between these truly nanoscopic particles can be induced through the derivatization of the diamondoid cage. Here we explore the gelation of paired systems of adamantane where attractions are introduced through van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding. Gels are produced through the mixing of 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid (A1C) and 1-adamantylamine (A1N). Upon mixing dimethyl sulfoxide solutions of these molecules at vanishing concentrations, these diamondoid molecules rapidly precipitate. A space-filling gel of the resulting aggregates is observed at approximately 3% by weight. These resulting gels have elastic moduli of 10<sup>2</sup>–10<sup>4</sup> Pa in the 3–7 wt % concentration range. At a 1:1 mol ratio of 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid (A1C) and 1-adamantylamine (A1N), the gel’s elastic modulus and yield stress increase as volume fractions ϕ<sup><i>x</i></sup> and ϕ<sup><i>y</i></sup> with <i>x</i> ≈ 4.2 and <i>y</i> ≈ 3.5. The dependencies of moduli and yield stress on the volume fraction display characteristics of colloidal gels. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images indicate that the gels are formed from a network of interwoven and branched fibers which are composed of ∼30 nm crystallites that have undergone oriented aggregation to form fibers

    Additional file 1 of Phosphorylation of EZH2 differs HER2-positive breast cancer invasiveness in a site-specific manner

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    Supplementary Material 1: Supplementary Fig. 1. EZH2-related genes in tumors provided by bioinformatics analysis based on TCGA-BRCA using STRING, and metascape databas

    Data_Sheet_1_Risk assessment of arrhythmias related to three antiseizure medications: a systematic review and single-arm meta-analysis.DOCX

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    ObjectiveAntiseizure medications (ASMs) are first line therapy for seizure disorders. Their effects on arrhythmias, especially the risk of arrhythmias associated with lacosamide (LCM), levetiracetam (LEV), and perampanel (PER), have been intensely investigated.MethodsWe searched four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science) until August 6, 2023. We used a common effects model and reported data as pooled incidence with 95% CIs. Meta-analyses were conducted to elucidate the risk of arrhythmias with different drugs, and Egger’s regression was performed to detect publication bias analysis.ResultsWe included 11 clinical trials with 1,031 participants. The pooled incidence of arrhythmias in the LEV group was 0.005 (95% CI: 0.001-0.013), while it was 0.014 in the LCM group (95% CI: 0.003-0.030). Publication bias analyses indicated no significant bias in the LEV group (t = 0.02, df = 4, p-value = 0.9852) but a significant bias in the LCM group (t = 5.94, df = 3, p-value = 0.0095). We corrected for this bias in the LCM group using the trim-and-fill method, which yielded a similar pooled incidence of 0.0137 (95% CI: 0.0036-0.0280), indicating good reliability. Due to insufficient studies, we could not conduct a meta-analysis for PER, and we analyzed them in our systematic review.ConclusionThe use of LCM significantly elevated the risk of arrhythmias, while LEV had non-significant arrhythmogenic effects. As for the arrhythmogenic effects of PER, more clinical trials are needed in the future.</p

    Table_1_Risk assessment of arrhythmias related to three antiseizure medications: a systematic review and single-arm meta-analysis.XLSX

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    ObjectiveAntiseizure medications (ASMs) are first line therapy for seizure disorders. Their effects on arrhythmias, especially the risk of arrhythmias associated with lacosamide (LCM), levetiracetam (LEV), and perampanel (PER), have been intensely investigated.MethodsWe searched four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science) until August 6, 2023. We used a common effects model and reported data as pooled incidence with 95% CIs. Meta-analyses were conducted to elucidate the risk of arrhythmias with different drugs, and Egger’s regression was performed to detect publication bias analysis.ResultsWe included 11 clinical trials with 1,031 participants. The pooled incidence of arrhythmias in the LEV group was 0.005 (95% CI: 0.001-0.013), while it was 0.014 in the LCM group (95% CI: 0.003-0.030). Publication bias analyses indicated no significant bias in the LEV group (t = 0.02, df = 4, p-value = 0.9852) but a significant bias in the LCM group (t = 5.94, df = 3, p-value = 0.0095). We corrected for this bias in the LCM group using the trim-and-fill method, which yielded a similar pooled incidence of 0.0137 (95% CI: 0.0036-0.0280), indicating good reliability. Due to insufficient studies, we could not conduct a meta-analysis for PER, and we analyzed them in our systematic review.ConclusionThe use of LCM significantly elevated the risk of arrhythmias, while LEV had non-significant arrhythmogenic effects. As for the arrhythmogenic effects of PER, more clinical trials are needed in the future.</p

    Data_Sheet_3_Risk assessment of arrhythmias related to three antiseizure medications: a systematic review and single-arm meta-analysis.PDF

    No full text
    ObjectiveAntiseizure medications (ASMs) are first line therapy for seizure disorders. Their effects on arrhythmias, especially the risk of arrhythmias associated with lacosamide (LCM), levetiracetam (LEV), and perampanel (PER), have been intensely investigated.MethodsWe searched four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science) until August 6, 2023. We used a common effects model and reported data as pooled incidence with 95% CIs. Meta-analyses were conducted to elucidate the risk of arrhythmias with different drugs, and Egger’s regression was performed to detect publication bias analysis.ResultsWe included 11 clinical trials with 1,031 participants. The pooled incidence of arrhythmias in the LEV group was 0.005 (95% CI: 0.001-0.013), while it was 0.014 in the LCM group (95% CI: 0.003-0.030). Publication bias analyses indicated no significant bias in the LEV group (t = 0.02, df = 4, p-value = 0.9852) but a significant bias in the LCM group (t = 5.94, df = 3, p-value = 0.0095). We corrected for this bias in the LCM group using the trim-and-fill method, which yielded a similar pooled incidence of 0.0137 (95% CI: 0.0036-0.0280), indicating good reliability. Due to insufficient studies, we could not conduct a meta-analysis for PER, and we analyzed them in our systematic review.ConclusionThe use of LCM significantly elevated the risk of arrhythmias, while LEV had non-significant arrhythmogenic effects. As for the arrhythmogenic effects of PER, more clinical trials are needed in the future.</p

    Data_Sheet_2_Risk assessment of arrhythmias related to three antiseizure medications: a systematic review and single-arm meta-analysis.DOCX

    No full text
    ObjectiveAntiseizure medications (ASMs) are first line therapy for seizure disorders. Their effects on arrhythmias, especially the risk of arrhythmias associated with lacosamide (LCM), levetiracetam (LEV), and perampanel (PER), have been intensely investigated.MethodsWe searched four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science) until August 6, 2023. We used a common effects model and reported data as pooled incidence with 95% CIs. Meta-analyses were conducted to elucidate the risk of arrhythmias with different drugs, and Egger’s regression was performed to detect publication bias analysis.ResultsWe included 11 clinical trials with 1,031 participants. The pooled incidence of arrhythmias in the LEV group was 0.005 (95% CI: 0.001-0.013), while it was 0.014 in the LCM group (95% CI: 0.003-0.030). Publication bias analyses indicated no significant bias in the LEV group (t = 0.02, df = 4, p-value = 0.9852) but a significant bias in the LCM group (t = 5.94, df = 3, p-value = 0.0095). We corrected for this bias in the LCM group using the trim-and-fill method, which yielded a similar pooled incidence of 0.0137 (95% CI: 0.0036-0.0280), indicating good reliability. Due to insufficient studies, we could not conduct a meta-analysis for PER, and we analyzed them in our systematic review.ConclusionThe use of LCM significantly elevated the risk of arrhythmias, while LEV had non-significant arrhythmogenic effects. As for the arrhythmogenic effects of PER, more clinical trials are needed in the future.</p

    Elasticity of Nanoparticles Influences Their Blood Circulation, Phagocytosis, Endocytosis, and Targeting

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    The impact of physical and chemical modifications of nanoparticles on their biological function has been systemically investigated and exploited to improve their circulation and targeting. However, the impact of nanoparticles’ flexibility (<i>i.e.</i>, elastic modulus) on their function has been explored to a far lesser extent, and the potential benefits of tuning nanoparticle elasticity are not clear. Here, we describe a method to synthesize polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based hydrogel nanoparticles of uniform size (200 nm) with elastic moduli ranging from 0.255 to 3000 kPa. These particles are used to investigate the role of particle elasticity on key functions including blood circulation time, biodistribution, antibody-mediated targeting, endocytosis, and phagocytosis. Our results demonstrate that softer nanoparticles (10 kPa) offer enhanced circulation and subsequently enhanced targeting compared to harder nanoparticles (3000 kPa) <i>in vivo</i>. Furthermore, <i>in vitro</i> experiments show that softer nanoparticles exhibit significantly reduced cellular uptake in immune cells (J774 macrophages), endothelial cells (bEnd.3), and cancer cells (4T1). Tuning nanoparticle elasticity potentially offers a method to improve the biological fate of nanoparticles by offering enhanced circulation, reduced immune system uptake, and improved targeting

    Synthesis of Oil-Laden Poly(ethylene glycol) Diacrylate Hydrogel Nanocapsules from Double Nanoemulsions

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    Multiple emulsions have received great interest due to their ability to be used as templates for the production of multicompartment particles for a variety of applications. However, scaling these complex droplets to nanoscale dimensions has been a challenge due to limitations on their fabrication methods. Here, we report the development of oil-in-water-in-oil (O<sub>1</sub>/W/O<sub>2</sub>) double nanoemulsions <i>via</i> a two-step high-energy method and their use as templates for complex nanogels comprised of inner oil droplets encapsulated within a hydrogel matrix. Using a combination of characterization methods, we determine how the properties of the nanogels are controlled by the size, stability, internal morphology, and chemical composition of the nanoemulsion templates from which they are formed. This allows for identification of compositional and emulsification parameters that can be used to optimize the size and oil encapsulation efficiency of the nanogels. Our templating method produces oil-laden nanogels with high oil encapsulation efficiencies and average diameters of 200–300 nm. In addition, we demonstrate the versatility of the system by varying the types of inner oil, the hydrogel chemistry, the amount of inner oil, and the hydrogel network cross-link density. These nontoxic oil-laden nanogels have potential applications in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic formulations

    Controlling Complex Nanoemulsion Morphology Using Asymmetric Cosurfactants for the Preparation of Polymer Nanocapsules

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    Complex nanoemulsions, comprising multiphase nanoscale droplets, hold considerable potential advantages as vehicles for encapsulation and delivery as well as templates for nanoparticle synthesis. Although methods exist to controllably produce complex emulsions on the microscale, very few methods exist to produce them on the nanoscale. Here, we examine a recently developed method involving a combination of high-energy emulsification with conventional cosurfactants to produce oil–water–oil (O/W/O) complex nanoemulsions. Specifically, we study in detail how the composition of conventional ethoxylated cosurfactants Span80 and Tween20 influences the morphology and structure of the resulting complex nanoemulsions in the water–cyclohexane system. Using a combination of small-angle neutron scattering and cryo-electron microscopy, we find that the cosurfactant composition controls the generation of complex droplet morphologies including core–shell and multicore–shell O/W/O nanodroplets, resulting in an effective state diagram for the selection of nanoemulsion morphology. Additionally, the cosurfactant composition can be used to control the thickness of the water shell contained within the complex nanodroplets. We hypothesize that this degree of control, despite the highly nonequilibrium nature of the nanoemulsions, is ultimately determined by a competition between the opposing spontaneous curvature of the two cosurfactants, which strongly influences the interfacial curvature of the nanodroplets as a result of their ultralow interfacial tension. This is supported by a correlation between cosurfactant compositions that produces complex nanoemulsions and those that produce homogeneous mixed micelles in equilibrium surfactant–cyclohexane solutions. Ultimately, we show that the formation of complex O/W/O nanoemulsions is weakly perturbed upon the addition of hydrophilic polymer precursors, facilitating their use as templates for the formation of polymer nanocapsules
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