4,580 research outputs found

    Vertical specialisation indicator based on supply-driven input-output model

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    “Import content of exportsâ€, based on Leontief’s demand-driven input-output model, has been widely used as an indicator to measure a country’s degree of participation in vertical specialisation trade. At a sectoral level, this indicator represents the share of inter-mediates imported by all sectors embodied in a given sector’s exported output. However, this indicator only reflects one aspect of vertical specialisation – the demand side. This paper discusses the possibility of using the input-output model developed by Ghosh to measure the vertical specialisation from the perspective of the supply side. At a sector level, the Ghosh type indicator measures the share of imported intermediates used in a sector’s production that are subsequently embodied in exports by all sectors. We estimate these two indicators of vertical specialisation for 47 selected economies for 1995, 2000, 2005 using the OECD’s harmonized input-output database. In addition, the potential biases of both indicators due to the treatment of net withdrawals in inventories, are also discussed.Developing countries, Developed countries, Input-output tables, International trade, Vertical specialisation, Ghosh inverse, Supply-driven, Input-output

    Application of factor decomposition techniques to vertical specialisation measurements

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    The increasing importance of vertical specialisation (VS) trade has been a notable feature of rapid economic globalisation and regional integration. In an attempt to understand countries’ depth of participation in global production chains, many Input-Output based VS indicators have been developed. However, most of them focus on showing the overall magnitude of a country’s VS trade, rather than explaining the roles that specific sectors or products play in VS trade and what factors make the VS change over time. Changes in vertical specialisation indicators are, in fact, determined by mixed and complex factors such as import substitution ratios, types of exported goods and domestic production networks. In this paper, decomposition techniques are applied to VS measurement based on the OECD Input-Output database. The decomposition results not only help us understand the structure of VS at detailed sector and product levels, but also show us the contributions of trade dependency, industrial structures of foreign trade and domestic production system to a country’s vertical specialisation trade.Developing countries, Developed countries, International trade, Input-output tables, Vertical specialisation, Factor decomposition, Input-output

    Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of Lectin-Binding Properties of 1,2-\u3ci\u3ecis\u3c/i\u3e-Glycosides

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    This dissertation presents a state-of-the-art research of 1,2-cis-glycosides, including synthetic methodology development, combinatorial total synthesis of galactoside ligands, construction of glycomicroarray surfaces, and quantitative evaluation of carbohydrate–lectin binding properties. In Chapter 1, as a general introduction, various strategies that have been developed for the stereoselective construction of 1,2-cis-O-glycosidic bond are reviewed. 1,2-cis-O-Glycoside structural units are ubiquitous in nature, and they are extensively involved in numerous biological activities. The systematic identification and evaluation of the roles of carbohydrates usually relies on practical synthetic approaches to afford pure carbohydrates in considerable quantities. Further development of general and efficient approaches to achieve the intrinsic organizational diversity of carbohydrates is still urged in order to meet the substantial carbohydrates in demand for biological, medicinal, and therapeutic studies. In Chapter 2, I report a 1,2-cis-glycosidation protocol that makes use of unprotected phenyl 1-thioglycosyl donors. Glycosylation of various functionalized alcohols was accomplished in moderate to high yield and selectivity to give the 1,2-cis-glycosides. In order to quickly optimize glycosylation conditions, a flow injection analysis method was established that enabled rapid and quantitative evaluation of yield on small scale. This methodology, together with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, allowed for rapid evaluation of the overall reactions. In Chapter 3, I describe the synthesis of alpha-linked propargyl terminated galactosides with various spatial presentations, which are set to be applied in the construction of synthetic carbohydrate microarrays to mimic featured carbohydrate presentations on a cell surface. Through the routes, glycosyl acceptors were obtained via flexible and efficient regioselective protection strategies, and they were glycosylated with an alpha-directing glycosyl donor to have the alpha-linked galactosides in exclusive stereoselective and satisfactory yield. In Chapter 4, the establishment of a synthetic carbohydrate microarray is described. The carbohydrate surface was interrogated by a fluorescence-labeled lectin to quantitatively analyze the carbohydrate-binding affinities and dissociation constants. This study will add new dimensions to our understanding of the effects of spatial arrangement of carbohydrate ligands in carbohydrate–lectin binding, and shed light on elucidating the structure–affinity relationship of carbohydrate recognition with receptors
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