947 research outputs found

    Educação rodoviária: estudo de caso

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    A sinistralidade rodoviária transformou-se numa doença social, das principais causas de morte, internamentos, tratamentos prolongados e incapacidades permanentes. Com os programas de segurança rodoviária a sinistralidade rodoviária tem diminuído. Em que medida estes programas incluem a educação rodoviária? Na escolaridade obrigatória é (ou não) abordada a educação rodoviária? O que pensam os professores sobre esta temática nos currículos escolares? Usa-se o método comparativo na análise das orientações e programas internacionais sobre segurança rodoviária. Analisa-se em estudo de caso as representações de professores sobre a educação rodoviária nas escolas. A educação rodoviária constitui uma necessidade básica de aprendizagem para todos

    Conjunctival lymphangioma: a case report and brief review of the literature

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    Background. Lymphangioma is a rare venolymphatic lesion, characterized by dilation of lymphatic vessels. It may occur as an isolated lesion or, more often, represent the surface component of a deep orbital lymphangioma. Case. We report a case of a conjunctival lymphangioma on a 58-year-old male that had simultaneously an upper respiratory tract infection. Excision and biopsy confirmed the nature of the lesion, and there has been no relapse to date. Conclusion. Conjunctival lymphangioma is a rare condition in which the diagnose, must be kept in mind in patients with a red eye resistance to topical therapy and in association with an upper respiratory tract infection. Finally, it is also necessary to be aware of possible recurrence of the lesion

    Ca2+-H+ antiport activity in synaptic vesicles isolated from sheep brain cortex

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    Synaptic vesicles isolated from sheep brain cortex exhibit an ATP-dependent Ca2+ accumulation that is inhibited by the protonophore uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and completely released by the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin. This transport activity was sensitive to the V-type ATPase inhibitor, bafilomycin, but not to the P-type ATPase inhibitor, vanadate. We also observed that the proton gradient, established across the synaptic vesicle membranes in the presence of ATP, is partially dissipated by the addition of Ca2+ (100-860 [mu]M) in correlation to an increase of ATP hydrolysis by the H+-pumping ATPase. In contrast, the activity of the H+-ATPase, measured under uncoupling conditions (presence of CCCP), appears to be unaltered by the calcium ion. The Ca2+-induced H+ release visualized by fluorescence quenching of acridine orange correlates well with the Ca2+ uptake determined isotopically. These results indicate that synaptic vesicles accumulate Ca2+, via a low affinity Ca2+-H+ antiport system energized by the protonmotive force originated from the H+-pumping ATPase activity.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T0G-3STG33F-M/1/23212cde5694bae6fc9101190baa18e

    Improving the dynamical behaviour of a laser cutting equipment by using a carbon fibre composite main structural runway frame

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    In order to improve the dynamic behaviour of an industrial laser cutting equipment a sandwich solution, using a carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) and polyester foam core, was implemented to construct its main runway structural frame, which supports the cutting head and major laser beam mirrors and lens. Nowadays, the commercial competiveness of laser cutting equipments is considerable enhanced by their higher cutting speed and precision, as well as, cost. With the recent available higher power laser beam generators and swifter motors quicker and powerful cuts may be already done. However, at accelerations of 3 and 4 g’s already enabled by linear motors, the lack of stiffness and high mass and consequent inertia of the traditional runway structural frames, made from steel and/or aluminium, do not allow achieving high required cutting precisions. Thus, the present study considered replacing those conventional materials by much lighter advanced CRFP composites to improve the dynamic performance of an existing laser cutting equipment. Advanced numeric Finite Element Method (FEM) calculations by using the ANSYS package software were made to verify the static and dynamic behaviours of the new composite structural frame and compare them to simulations made with the currently used steel solution. The composite structural frame processing method has been also studied and defined in this work. Furthermore, the composite laminate has been optimised by defining the better number of stacking layers and fibre orientations to be used, as well as, the foam core thickness. The failure of the new sandwich structural composite runway frame has been verified through the Tsai-Wu criterion. Finally, an economic analysis of the viability of the new composite solution adopted will be also presented.Adira, S

    Improving the dynamical behaviour of a laser cutting equipment by using a carbon fibre composite main structural runway frame

    Get PDF
    In order to improve the dynamic behaviour of an industrial laser cutting equipment a sandwich solution, using a carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) and polyester foam core, was implemented to construct its main runway structural frame, which supports the cutting head and major laser beam mirrors and lens. Nowadays, the commercial competiveness of laser cutting equipments is considerable enhanced by their higher cutting speed and precision, as well as, cost. With the recent available higher power laser beam generators and swifter motors quicker and powerful cuts may be already done. However, at accelerations of 3 and 4 g’s already enabled by linear motors, the lack of stiffness and high mass and consequent inertia of the traditional runway structural frames, made from steel and/or aluminium, do not allow achieving high required cutting precisions. Thus, the present study considered replacing those conventional materials by much lighter advanced CRFP composites to improve the dynamic performance of an existing laser cutting equipment. Advanced numeric Finite Element Method (FEM) calculations by using the ANSYS package software were made to verify the static and dynamic behaviours of the new composite structural frame and compare them to simulations made with the currently used steel solution.The composite structural frame processing method has been also studied and defined in this work. Furthermore, the composite laminate has been optimised by defining the better number of stacking layers and fibre orientations to be used, as well as, the foam core thickness. The failure of the new sandwich structural composite runway frame has been verified through the Tsai-Wu criterion. Finally, an economic analysis of the viability of the new composite solution adopted will be also presented

    Microalgal reactors: a review of enclosed system designs and performances

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    One major challenge to industrial microalgal culturing is to devise and develop technical apparata, cultivation procedures and algal strains susceptible of undergoing substantial increases in efficiency of use of solar energy and carbon dioxide. Despite several research efforts developed to date, there is no such thing as “the best reactor system”- defined, in an absolute fashion, as the one able to achieve maximum productivity with minimum operation costs, irrespective of the biological and chemical system at stake. In fact, choice of the most suitable system is situationdependent, as both the species of alga available and the final purpose intended will play a role. The need of accurate control impairs use of open-system configurations, so current investigation has focused mostly on closed systems. In this review, several types of closed bioreactors described in the technical literature as able to support production of microalgae are comprehensively presented and duly discussed, using transport phenomenon and process engineering methodological approaches. The text is subdivided into subsections on: reactor design, which includes tubular reactors, flat plate reactors and fermenter-type reactors; and processing parameters, which include gaseous transfer, medium mixing and light requirements

    Rapid spectrophotometric determination of nitrates and nitrites in marine aqueous culture media

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    The spectrophotometric determination of nitrate in sea water broths for cultivation of, say, microalgae is complicated by the frequent presence of nitrite. Two methods - sulphamic/perchloric acid method (also known as Cawse method) and sulphamic acid method - both claimed to be able to eliminate nitrite interference, were tested using a set of standards, but statistical treatment of the results proved their limitations in nitrate quantification. An improved method, based on former published methods for quantification of nitrite and coupled determination of nitrate and nitrite, was designed and tested. This improved method was compared with the reference method (based on use of a cadmium column) using several standards and biological samples of two culture media for microalgae, in different phases of their growth curve. The results thus obtained have demonstrated that there is no statistically significant difference between them at the 5% level. The precision of the method was tested by repeating determinations with three sets of standard mixtures containing nitrate and nitrite. The method proposed has advantages over conventional methods in reduced time of analysis, as well as high precision and accuracy, so it may be a good alternative for determination of nitrite and nitrate in marine aqueous media

    Review: Removal of oversize & recovery of particles from suspensions in the nano size range

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    The review will try to answer to two main goals: the product classification and the productremoval in the nano-size range and specifically applied to wet suspensions. The productclassification means the removal of the coarse fraction from a size distribution, targetingspecific size regimes (e.g. those > 0.5 μm and those > 100nm). The product recovery is theremoval of all particles from a suspension, down to several nanometers. In that case however,the separation may be done differently if the product of interest is the solid (the separation isfocused on the recovery of particles in the nano-size range) or the liquid phase (the separationis focused on the liquid phase purification).Usually, one considers that nanoparticles are particles having their three dimensions lowerthan 100 nm. The size range covered by this review varies from a few nanometers to severalmicrons or even more. One raison is that nanoseparation processes are often not specifictechnologies but current technologies that have been extended towards the submicronic range

    Transitions Between Preexposure Prophylaxis Eligibility States and HIV Infection in the Lisbon Cohort of HIV-Negative Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Multistate Model Analysis

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    We aimed to describe transitions between preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) eligibility and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM). We used data from 1,885 MSM, who had not used PrEP, enrolled in the Lisbon Cohort of MSM, with at least 2 consecutive measurements of PrEP eligibility from 2014–2020. A time-homogeneous Markov multistate model was applied to describe the transitions between states of PrEP eligibility—eligible and ineligible—and from these to HIV infection (HIV). The intensities of the transitions were closer for ineligible-to-eligible and eligible-to-ineligible transitions (intensity ratio, 1.107, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.080, 1.176), while the intensity of the eligible-to-HIV transition was higher than that for ineligible-to–HIV transition (intensity ratio, 9.558, 95% CI: 0.738, 65.048). The probabilities of transitions increased with time; for 90 days, the probabilities were similar for the ineligible-to-eligible and eligible-to-ineligible transitions (0.285 (95% CI: 0.252, 0.319) vs. 0.258 (95% CI: 0.228, 0.287)), while the eligible-to-HIV transition was more likely than ineligible-to-HIV (0.004 (95% CI: 0.003, 0.007) vs. 0.001 (95% CI: 0.001, 0.008)) but tended to become closer with time. Being classified as ineligible was a short-term indicator of a lower probability of acquiring HIV. Once an individual moved to eligible, he was at a higher risk of seroconversion, demanding a timely delivery of PrEP.This work was supported by national funds of Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT), under the scope of the project UIDB/04750/2020—Research Unit of Epidemiology–Institute of Public Health of the University of Porto (EPIUnit). P.M. was the recipient of doctoral grant SFRH/BD/112867/2015, co-funded by the FCT and the Programa Operacional Capital Humano/Fundo Social Europeu. C.M. was supported by Portuguese funds through FCT within the Project UID/MAT/00013/2013
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