1,942 research outputs found

    Outcome bias in self-evaluations: Quasi-experimental field evidence from Swiss driving license exams

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    Exploiting a quasi-experimental field setting, we examine whether people are outcome biased when self-evaluating their past decisions. Using data from Swiss driving license exams, we find that candidates who narrowly passed the theoretical driving exam are significantly less likely to pass the subsequent practical driving exam ‚Äď which is taken several months after the theoretical exam ‚Äď than those who narrowly failed. Those candidates who passed the theoretical exam on their first attempt receive more objections regarding their momentary, on-the-spot decisions in the practical exam, consistent with the idea that the underlying behavioral difference is worse preparation

    Genetic variation of xylem hydraulic properties shows that wood density is involved in adaptation to drought in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.))

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    Relationships between wood density and hydraulic efficiency and safety (hydraulic specific conductivity and vulnerability to cavitation, respectively) could clarify the physiological process explaining the impact of density on fitness. We have used new, relatively high-throughput phenotyping methods to estimate genetic variation of wood hydraulic specific conductivity (ks) and vulnerability to cavitation (VC) as an important step toward demonstrating the adaptive value of wood density.Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria BarilocheFil: Dalla Salda, Guillermina. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA). Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Bariloche. √Ārea de Recursos Forestales. Grupo de Ecolog√≠a Forestal; ArgentinaFil: Martinez Meier, Alejandro. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA). Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Bariloche. √Ārea de Recursos Forestales. Grupo de Ecolog√≠a Forestal; ArgentinaFil: Cochard, Herv√©. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA); FranciaFil: Rozenberg, Philippe. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA); Franci

    Carbon Dioxide Methanation for Human Exploration of Mars: A Look at Catalyst Longevity and Activity Using Supported Ruthenium

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    Overarching Purpose: To design a carbon dioxide methanation/Sabatier reaction catalyst able to withstand variable conditions including fluctuations in bed temperature and feed flow rates for 480 days of remote operation to produce seven tons of methane. Current Study Purpose: Examine supported Ruthenium as a carbon dioxide methanation catalyst to determine the effects support properties have on the active phase by studying activity and selectivity. Objective: The remote operation of the Mars ISRU (In Situ Resources Utilization) lander to produce rocket fuel prior to crew arrival on the planet to power an ascent vehicle. Constraints: Long-term operation (480 days); Variable conditions: Feed gas flow rates, Feed gas flow ratios, Reactor bed temperature

    Paleotectonic evolution of the Z√ľrcher Weinland (northern Switzerland), based on 2D and 3D seismic data

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    Abstract.: A new interpretation of the Permo-Carboniferous (PC) troughs in the Z√ľrcher Weinland region in northern Switzerland is proposed on the basis of 2D and 3D reflection seismic surveys. The presence of two WSW-ENE oriented grabens separated by a crystalline basement horst block, confirmed by the Benken borehole, is well established, though the presence of PC deposits in its surroundings remains uncertain. The interpretation of the 3D seismic data shows a transtensive tectonic regime for this period confirming the results of earlier interpretations of 2D-lines. There is no evidence for a compressive Saalian phase (around 265Ma) as postulated for the PC trough west of Weiach. Several observed faults show signs of reactivation during a late Triassic inversion phase. Detailed mapping of the Mesozoic sequence reveals that further and minor reactivations along the border of the PC trough south of Benken may have influenced deposition of the younger sediments and the local structuration of the base-Tertiary unconformity. The findings of the local investigations are interpreted in the context of large-scale paleotectonic model

    LIA Forestia : reporte de actividades 1er y 2do a√Īo (mayo 2018-mayo 2020)

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    LIA FORESTIA INRAE-INTA presenta su primer reporte bianual de actividades. Se indican a continuaci√≥n las reuniones de coordinaci√≥n, los proyectos ‚Äďfinalizados, en ejecuci√≥n y los presentados a nuevas convocatorias-, los programas de formaci√≥n profesional realizados, desde mayo de 2018 a mayo de 2020. Se incluye tambi√©n la lista completa de publicaciones llevadas adelante desde los inicios de la colaboraci√≥n internacional.Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria BarilocheFil: Rozenberg, Philippe. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA); FranciaFil: Martinez Meier, Alejandro. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA). Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Bariloche. √Ārea de Recursos Forestales. Grupo de Ecolog√≠a Forestal; Argentin

    Wood phenotyping tools: properties, functions and quality : Reporte técnico final. Período que cubre este reporte: desde el 01/04/2015 al 31/03/2019

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    Muchos aspectos de la ecolog√≠a de bosques y la cadena de valor de la industria forestal se relacionan con propiedades de la madera. Estas propiedades se pueden optimizar mediante mejoramiento gen√©tico, operaciones silv√≠colas y por selecci√≥n, clasificaci√≥n y tratamientos de la madera despu√©s de la cosecha. Ciertos procesos de fabricaci√≥n y producci√≥n se pueden ajustar si se conocen las propiedades de la madera. Herramientas de fenotipado de alto rendimiento son esenciales para estos procesos. Los laboratorios de las instituciones acad√©micas participantes del INRAE-Francia, INTA- Argentina y BOKU-Austria, as√≠ como la empresa MADERA+-Espa√Īa, se encontraron abocados al estudio de las propiedades de la madera y al desarrollo de herramientas de laboratorio destinadas al muestreo no destructivo de √°rboles en pie, en aserradero y en laboratorio. Este grupo de trabajo centr√≥ sus esfuerzos en determinar propiedades de la madera, comparar procesos metodol√≥gicos, analizar datos complejos y elaborar protocolos de trabajo para el estudio conjunto de caracteres que se hallan involucrados en procesos de adaptaci√≥n a factores de estr√©s ambiental y de calidad de madera a partir de un abordaje multidisciplinario.Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria BarilocheFil: Rozenberg, Philippe. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA); FranciaFil: Martinez Meier, Alejandro. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA). Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Bariloche. √Ārea de Recursos Forestales. Unidad de Gen√©tica Forestal; Argentin

    Evaluating automated longitudinal tumor measurements for glioblastoma response assessment.

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    Automated tumor segmentation tools for glioblastoma show promising performance. To apply these tools for automated response assessment, longitudinal segmentation, and tumor measurement, consistency is critical. This study aimed to determine whether BraTumIA and HD-GLIO are suited for this task. We evaluated two segmentation tools with respect to automated response assessment on the single-center retrospective LUMIERE dataset with 80 patients and a total of 502 post-operative time points. Volumetry and automated bi-dimensional measurements were compared with expert measurements following the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) guidelines. The longitudinal trend agreement between the expert and methods was evaluated, and the RANO progression thresholds were tested against the expert-derived time-to-progression (TTP). The TTP and overall survival (OS) correlation was used to check the progression thresholds. We evaluated the automated detection and influence of non-measurable lesions. The tumor volume trend agreement calculated between segmentation volumes and the expert bi-dimensional measurements was high (HD-GLIO: 81.1%, BraTumIA: 79.7%). BraTumIA achieved the closest match to the expert TTP using the recommended RANO progression threshold. HD-GLIO-derived tumor volumes reached the highest correlation between TTP and OS (0.55). Both tools failed at an accurate lesion count across time. Manual false-positive removal and restricting to a maximum number of measurable lesions had no beneficial effect. Expert supervision and manual corrections are still necessary when applying the tested automated segmentation tools for automated response assessment. The longitudinal consistency of current segmentation tools needs further improvement. Validation of volumetric and bi-dimensional progression thresholds with multi-center studies is required to move toward volumetry-based response assessment

    Preimage Attacks on 3-Pass HAVAL and Step-Reduced MD5

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    This paper presents preimage attacks for the hash functions 3-pass HAVAL and step-reduced MD5. Introduced in 1992 and 1991 respectively, these functions underwent severe collision attacks, but no preimage attack. We describe two preimage attacks on the compression function of 3-pass HAVAL. The attacks have a complexity of about 22242^{224} compression function evaluations instead of 22562^{256}. Furthermore, we present several preimage attacks on the MD5 compression function that invert up to 47 (out of 64) steps within 2962^{96} trials instead of 21282^{128}. Though our attacks are not practical, they show that the security margin of 3-pass HAVAL and step-reduced MD5 with respect to preimage attacks is not as high as expected

    Clinical evaluation of hormonal stress state in medical ICU patients: a prospective blinded observational study

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    Objective: To evaluate whether classification of patients as having low, moderate, or high stress based on clinical parameters is associated with plasma levels of stress hormone Design and setting: Prospective, blinded, observational study in an 18-bed medical ICU. Patients: Eighty-eight consecutive patients Interventions: Patients were classified as low (n=28), moderate (n=33) or high stress (n=27) on days 0 and 3 of ICU stay, based on 1 point for each abnormal parameter: body temperature, heart rate, systemic arterial pressure, respiratory rate, physical agitation, presence of infection and catecholamine administration. The stress categories were: high: 4 points or more, moderate 2-3 points, low 1 point. Plasma growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin, glucagon, cortisol were measured on days 0 and 3. Measurements and results: Plasma cortisol and glucagon were significantly higher and IGF-1 lower in high vs. low stress patients on days 0 and 3. High stress patients were more likely to have high cortisol levels (odds ratio 5.8, confidence interval 1.8-18.9), high glucagon (8.7, 2.1-36.1), and low IGF-1 levels (5.9, 1.8-19.0) than low stress patients on day 0. Moderate stress patients were also more likely to have high cortisol and glucagon levels than low stress patients. Insulin and GH did not differ significantly. Results were similar for day 3. Conclusions: Moderate and severe stress was significantly associated with high catabolic (cortisol, glucagon) and low anabolic (IGF-1) hormone levels. The hormonal stress level in ICU patients can be estimated from simple clinical parameters during routine clinical evaluatio
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