9 research outputs found

    Outcome bias in self-evaluations: Quasi-experimental field evidence from Swiss driving license exams

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    Exploiting a quasi-experimental field setting, we examine whether people are outcome biased when self-evaluating their past decisions. Using data from Swiss driving license exams, we find that candidates who narrowly passed the theoretical driving exam are significantly less likely to pass the subsequent practical driving exam – which is taken several months after the theoretical exam – than those who narrowly failed. Those candidates who passed the theoretical exam on their first attempt receive more objections regarding their momentary, on-the-spot decisions in the practical exam, consistent with the idea that the underlying behavioral difference is worse preparation

    May Bad Luck Be Without You: The Effect of CEO Luck on Strategic Risk-taking

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    We investigate how luck, namely, changes in a firm's performance beyond the CEO's control, affects strategic risk-taking. Fusing upper echelons theory with insights from psychology and behavioral strategy research, we hypothesize that there is a positive association between luck and strategic risk-taking and that this effect is stronger for bad luck than for good luck. We further argue that these effects vary depending on whether CEOs have experienced negative events earlier in their professional careers. Measuring luck as the exogenous component of recent firm performance, we show empirically that CEOs react to bad luck by adopting more conservative risk-taking policies while showing no reactions to good luck. This effect predictably varies with the strength of bad luck signals, and it is stronger for CEOs who have experienced negative events during their professional careers. We contribute to the literature by providing the first evidence on the role of luck in corporate strategic risk-taking

    Replication: Do coaches stick with what barely worked? Evidence of outcome bias in sports

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    We replicate the finding of Lefgren et al. (2015) showing that professional basketball coaches in the NBA discontinuously change their starting lineup more often after narrow losses than after narrow wins. This result is consistent with outcome bias because such narrow outcomes are conditionally uninformative. As our paper shows, this pattern is not restricted to the NBA; we also find evidence of outcome bias in the top women’s professional basketball league and college basketball. Finally, we show that outcome bias in coaching decisions generalizes to the National Football League (NFL). We conclude that outcome bias is credible and robust, although it has weakened over time in some instances

    Outcome Bias in Self-evaluations: Quasi-experimental Field Evidence of Swiss Driving License Exams

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    Employing a quasi-experimental field setting, we examine whether people are outcome biased when self-evaluating their past decisions. Using data from Swiss driving license exams, we find that candidates who narrowly passed the theoretical driving exam are significantly less likely to pass the subsequent practical driving exam – which is taken several months after the theoretical exam – relative to those who failed narrowly. The candidates who passed the theoretical exam in their first attempt received more objections in momentary, on-the-spot kinds of decisions, consistent with the idea that worse preparation is the underlying behavioral difference

    Are Sports Betting Markets Semistrong Efficient? Evidence from the Covid-19 Pandemic

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    This paper examines whether sports betting markets are semi-strong form efficient—i.e., whether new information is rapidly and completely incorporated into betting prices. We use news on ghost games in the top European football leagues due to the COVID-19 pandemic as a clean arrival of new public information. Because spectators are absent during ghost games, the home advantage is reduced, and we test whether this information is fully reflected in betting prices. Our results show that bookmakers and betting exchanges systematically overestimated a home team’s winning probability during the first period of the ghost games, which suggests that betting markets are, at least temporally, not semi-strong form efficient. Examining different leagues, we find that our main results are driven by the German Bundesliga, which was the first league to resume operations. We exploit a betting strategy that yields a positive net payoff over more than one month

    Are Sports Betting Markets Semistrong Efficient? Evidence from the COVID-19 Pandemic

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    This paper examines whether sports betting markets are semistrong-form efficient—i.e., whether new information is rapidly and completely incorporated into betting prices. We use the news of ghost matches in the top European football leagues due to the COVID-19 pandemic as the arrival of public information. Because spectators are absent in ghost games, the home field advantage is reduced, and we test whether this information is fully reflected in betting prices. Our results show that bookmakers systematically overestimate a home team’s winning probability during the first period of the ghost games, which suggests that betting markets are, at least temporally, not semistrong-form efficient. We exploit a betting strategy that yields a positive net payoff over more than one month

    Does Performance Pressure Accentuate Outcome Bias? Evidence from Managerial Dismissals

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    Outcome bias refers to the tendency to overweight the informativeness of observed outcomes in evaluations, consequently underestimating the influence of luck. However, observed outcomes that fall short of expectations simultaneously trigger performance pressure, potentially reinforcing outcome bias in evaluation decisions such as managerial dismissals. Using data from European football, we investigate whether managerial dismissal decisions are influenced by luck operationalized as opponent player injuries and whether this influence is more pronounced under performance pressure. Our findings reveal that luck significantly impacts dismissal decisions, particularly as performance pressure mounts. Importantly, this amplified outcome bias under performance pressure is predominantly driven by instances of bad luck. These results suggest that the extent of outcome bias has been underappreciated, especially in situations involving bad luck

    Replication: Do Coaches Stick with What Barely Worked? Evidence of Outcome Bias in Professional Sports

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    Consistent with outcome bias, we replicate the finding of Lefgren et al. (2015) showing that professional basketball coaches in the NBA discontinuously change their starting lineup more often after narrow losses than after narrow wins, even though this outcome is conditionally uninformative. As our paper shows, this pattern is not restricted to the NBA; we find evidence of outcome bias in the top women’s professional basketball league and college basketball. Finally, we show that outcome bias in coaching decisions generalizes to the National Football League (NFL). We conclude that outcome bias is credible and robust, although it has weakened over time
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