238 research outputs found

    Bioinformatics analyses of <i>OsMTP11</i> nucleotide and amino acid sequences.

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    <p><b>A.</b><i>OsMTP11</i> gene structure analysis in the Rice Genome Annotation Database (<a href="http://rice.plantbiology.msu.edu/" target="_blank">http://rice.plantbiology.msu.edu/</a>). <b>B.</b> Phylogenetic tree of the <i>MTP</i> family from rice and <i>Arabidopsis</i>. The tree was constructed using MEGA 4.0.2 by the neighbor-joining method. <i>Arabidopsis</i> MTP amino acid sequences were obtained from <a href="http://www.tigr.org" target="_blank">www.tigr.org</a>: AtMTP1, At2g46800; AtMTP2, At3g61940; AtMTP3, At3g58810; AtMTP4, At2g29410; AtMTP5, At3g12100; AtMTP6, At2g47830; AtMTP7, At1g51610; AtMTP8, At3g58060; AtMTP9, At1g79520; AtMTP10, At1g16310; AtMTP11, At2g39450; AtMTP12, At2g04620. Rice MTP amino acid sequences were downloaded from <a href="http://rice.plantbiology.msu.edu/" target="_blank">http://rice.plantbiology.msu.edu/</a>. OsMTP11, Os01g62070; OsMTP1, Os05g03780; OsMTP5, Os02g58580; OsMTP6, Os03g22550; OsMTP7, Os04g23180; OsMTP8, Os02g53490; OsMTP8.1, Os03g12580; OsMTP9, Os01g03914; OsMTP11, Os01g62070; OsMTP11.1, Os05g38670; OsMTP12, Os08g32680. <b>C.</b> Amino acid alignment of OsMTP11, AtMTP11 [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0174987#pone.0174987.ref011" target="_blank">11</a>] and ShMTP1 (AY181256) [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0174987#pone.0174987.ref012" target="_blank">12</a>]. Amino acid sequences of four predicted transmembrane (TM) segments are boxed. Amino acid residues with dark shading indicate conserved sequences, and residues with light gray shading indicate those conserved in two protein sequences. <b>D.</b> The predicted transmembrane helices of OsMTP11. The transmembrane domains were estimated using TMHMM2: <a href="http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/TMHMM/" target="_blank">www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/TMHMM/</a>. The peaks show the predicted transmembrane (TM) regions of proteins. These data indicate that OsMTP11 has four obvious TM regions.</p

    The <i>OsMTP11</i> putative promoter region (-2,250 bp) sequence.

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    <p>The transcription start site is denoted +1, and the putative start codon is underlined. Diagram of the <i>OsMTP11</i> promoter region using PlantCARE (<a href="http://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/webtools/plantcare/html/" target="_blank">http://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/webtools/plantcare/html/</a>) showed the presence of a number of potential cis-acting elements that respond to environmental signals. MRE, metal-response element [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0174987#pone.0174987.ref034" target="_blank">34</a>, <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0174987#pone.0174987.ref035" target="_blank">35</a>]; ABRE, abscisic acid-response element [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0174987#pone.0174987.ref036" target="_blank">36</a>]; I-box, light-response element [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0174987#pone.0174987.ref037" target="_blank">37</a>]; BS1EGCCR, "BS1 (binding site 1)" found in CCR gene promoter, which is a cis-element required for vascular expression of the cinnamoyl CoA reductase gene in <i>E</i>. <i>gunnii</i> [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0174987#pone.0174987.ref038" target="_blank">38</a>]. MREs include MRE1: 5’-TGCRCNC-3’ (R = A or G; N = any residue) [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0174987#pone.0174987.ref034" target="_blank">34</a>] and MRE2: 5’-HTHNNGCTGD-3’ (D = A, G, or T; H = A, C, or T; N = any residue) [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0174987#pone.0174987.ref035" target="_blank">35</a>].</p

    Expression pattern of <i>OsMTP11</i> by real time RT-PCR.

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    <p><b>A.</b> Real time RT-PCR results of <i>OsMTP11</i> expression in wild-type rice plants (Nipponbare) from different tissues or organs. The amplification of the rice <i>OsUBQ5</i> (AK061988) gene was used as a control to normalize the transcript level of <i>OsMTP11</i>. <b>B.</b> Expression analysis of <i>OsMTP11</i> under different heavy metal stresses (Mn, Cd, Zn and Ni) by real time RT-PCR. The expression of <i>OsMTP11</i> is increased in rice roots and shoots treated with 0.5 mM CdCl<sub>2</sub>, 5 mM Zn(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>, 1 mM NiCl<sub>2</sub>, 2 mM MnSO<sub>4</sub>, 300 mM NaCl and 100 μM methyl viologen (MV) for different time periods. <b>C.</b> Expression analysis of <i>OsMTP11</i> under 300 mM NaCl and 100 μM methylviologen (MV) by real time RT-PCR.</p

    Quantitative metrics for weightless initialization models before and after cellular data source improvement.

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    Quantitative metrics for weightless initialization models before and after cellular data source improvement.</p

    Graphical visual representation of Table 5.

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    Aiming at the shortcomings of the traditional level set model which only has good robustness to the weak boundary and strong noise of the original target image, this paper proposes an improved algorithm based on the no-weight initialization level set model, introducing bilateral filters and using implicit surface level sets to extract and segment the original target image object more accurately, clearly and intuitively in the evolution process. The experimental simulation results show that, compared with the traditional non-reinitialized level set model segmentation method, the improved method can more accurately extract the edge contours of the target image object, and has better edge contour extraction effect, and the original target noise reduction effect of the improved model is better than that of the model before the improvement. The original target image object edge contour takes less time to extract than the conventional non-reinitialized level set model before the improvement.</div

    Comparison of the edge extraction results of the lighthouse data source images by the model before and after improvement.

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    Comparison of the edge extraction results of the lighthouse data source images by the model before and after improvement.</p

    Comparison of edge extraction results rugby data source images by the improved before and after model.

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    Comparison of edge extraction results rugby data source images by the improved before and after model.</p
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