29,315 research outputs found

    From scattering theory to complex wave dynamics in non-hermitian PT-symmetric resonators

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    I review how methods from mesoscopic physics can be applied to describe the multiple wave scattering and complex wave dynamics in non-hermitian PT-symmetric resonators, where an absorbing region is coupled symmetrically to an amplifying region. Scattering theory serves as a convenient tool to classify the symmetries beyond the single-channel case and leads to effective descriptions which can be formulated in the energy domain (via Hamiltonians) and in the time domain (via time evolution operators). These models can then be used to identify the mesoscopic time and energy scales which govern the spectral transition from real to complex eigenvalues. The possible presence of magneto-optical effects (a finite vector potential) in multichannel systems leads to a variant (termed PTT' symmetry) which imposes the same spectral constraints as PT symmetry. I also provide multichannel versions of generalized flux-conservation laws.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figures, minireview for a theme issue, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

    Hepcidin secretion was not directly proportional to intracellular iron-loading in recombinant-TfR1 HepG2 cells: short communication

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    Hepcidin is the master regulator of systemic iron homeostasis and its dysregulation is observed in several chronic liver diseases. Unlike the extracellular iron-sensing mechanisms, the intracellular iron-sensing mechanisms in the hepatocytes that lead to hepcidin induction and secretion are incompletely understood. Here, we aimed to understand the direct role of intracellular iron-loading on hepcidin mRNA and peptide secretion using our previously characterised recombinant HepG2 cells that over-express the cell-surface iron-importer protein transferrin receptor-1. Gene expression of hepcidin (HAMP) was determined by real-time PCR. Intracellular iron levels and secreted hepcidin peptide levels were measured by ferrozine assay and immunoassay, respectively. These measurements were compared in the recombinant and wild-type HepG2 cells under basal conditions at 30 min, 2 h, 4 h and 24 h. Data showed that in the recombinant cells, intracellular iron content was higher than wild-type cells at 30 min (3.1-fold, p<0.01), 2 h (4.6-fold, p<0.01), 4 h (4.6-fold, p<0.01) and 24 h (1.9-fold, p<0.01). Hepcidin (HAMP) mRNA expression was higher than wild-type cells at 30 min (5.9-fold; p=0.05) and 24 h (6.1-fold; p<0.03), but at 4 h, the expression was lower than that in wild-type cells (p<0.05). However, hepcidin secretion levels in the recombinant cells were similar to those in wild-type cells at all time-points, except at 4 h, when the level was lower than wild-type cells (p<0.01). High intracellular iron in recombinant HepG2 cells did not proportionally increase hepcidin peptide secretion. This suggests a limited role of elevated intracellular iron in hepcidin secretio

    Glassy dynamics in granular compaction

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    Two models are presented to study the influence of slow dynamics on granular compaction. It is found in both cases that high values of packing fraction are achieved only by the slow relaxation of cooperative structures. Ongoing work to study the full implications of these results is discussed.Comment: 12 pages, 9 figures; accepted in J. Phys: Condensed Matter, proceedings of the Trieste workshop on 'Unifying concepts in glass physics

    Adaptive control and noise suppression by a variable-gain gradient algorithm

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    An adaptive control system based on normalized LMS filters is investigated. The finite impulse response of the nonparametric controller is adaptively estimated using a given reference model. Specifically, the following issues are addressed: The stability of the closed loop system is analyzed and heuristically established. Next, the adaptation process is studied for piecewise constant plant parameters. It is shown that by introducing a variable-gain in the gradient algorithm, a substantial reduction in the LMS adaptation rate can be achieved. Finally, process noise at the plant output generally causes a biased estimate of the controller. By introducing a noise suppression scheme, this bias can be substantially reduced and the response of the adapted system becomes very close to that of the reference model. Extensive computer simulations validate these and demonstrate assertions that the system can rapidly adapt to random jumps in plant parameters

    Exponential sensitivity of noise-driven switching in genetic networks

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    Cells are known to utilize biochemical noise to probabilistically switch between distinct gene expression states. We demonstrate that such noise-driven switching is dominated by tails of probability distributions and is therefore exponentially sensitive to changes in physiological parameters such as transcription and translation rates. However, provided mRNA lifetimes are short, switching can still be accurately simulated using protein-only models of gene expression. Exponential sensitivity limits the robustness of noise-driven switching, suggesting cells may use other mechanisms in order to switch reliably

    Density-functional theory for fermions in the unitary regime

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    In the unitary regime, fermions interact strongly via two-body potentials that exhibit a zero range and a (negative) infinite scattering length. The energy density is proportional to the free Fermi gas with a proportionality constant ξ\xi. We use a simple density functional parametrized by an effective mass and the universal constant ξ\xi, and employ Kohn-Sham density-functional theory to obtain the parameters from fit to one exactly solvable two-body problem. This yields ξ=0.42\xi=0.42 and a rather large effective mass. Our approach is checked by similar Kohn-Sham calculations for the exactly solvable Calogero model.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figure