60 research outputs found

    Flux Modulation from the Rossby Wave Instability in microquasars accretion disks: toward a HFQPO model

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    Context. There have been a long string of efforts to understand the source of the variability observed in microquasars, especially concerning the elusive High-Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillation. These oscillations are among the fastest phenomena that affect matter in the vicinity of stellar black holes and therefore could be used as probes of strong-field general relativity. Nevertheless, no model has yet gained wide acceptance. Aims. The aim of this article is to investigate the model derived from the occurrence of the Rossby wave instability at the inner edge of the accretion disk. In particular, our goal here is to demonstrate the capacity of this instability to modulate the observed flux in agreement with the observed results. Methods. We use the AMRVAC hydrodynamical code to model the instability in a 3D optically thin disk. The GYOTO ray-tracing code is then used to compute the associated light curve. Results. We show that the 3D Rossby wave instability is able to modulate the flux well within the observed limits.We highlight that 2D simulations allow us to obtain the same general characteristics of the light curve as 3D calculations. With the time resolution we adopted in this work, three dimensional simulations do not give rise to any new observable features that could be detected by current instrumentation or archive data.Comment: 10 pages, 10 figures, accepted by A&

    How strong are the Rossby vortices?

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    The Rossby wave instability, associated with density bumps in differentially rotating discs, may arise in several different astrophysical contexts, such as galactic or protoplanetary discs. While the linear phase of the instability has been well studied, the nonlinear evolution and especially the saturation phase remain poorly understood. In this paper, we test the non-linear saturation mechanism analogous to that derived for wave-particle interaction in plasma physics. To this end we perform global numerical simulations of the evolution of the instability in a two-dimensional disc. We confirm the physical mechanism for the instability saturation and show that the maximum amplitude of vorticity can be estimated as twice the linear growth rate of the instability. We provide an empirical fitting formula for this growth rate for various parameters of the density bump. We also investigate the effects of the azimuthal mode number of the instability and the energy leakage in the spiral density waves. Finally, we show that our results can be extrapolated to 3D discs.Comment: Accepted for publication in MNRA

    Formation and long-term evolution of 3D vortices in protoplanetary discs

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    In the context of planet formation, anticyclonic vortices have recently received lots of attention for the role they can play in planetesimals formation. Radial migration of intermediate size solids toward the central star may prevent their growth to larger solid grains. On the other hand, vortices can trap the dust and accelerate this growth, counteracting fast radial transport. Multiple effects have been shown to affect this scenario, such as vortex migration or decay. The aim of this paper is to study the formation of vortices by the Rossby wave instability and their long term evolution in a full three dimensional protoplanetary disc. We use a robust numerical scheme combined with adaptive mesh refinement in cylindrical coordinates, allowing to affordably compute long term 3D evolutions. We consider a full disc stratified both radially and vertically that is prone to formation of vortices by the Rossby wave instability. We show that the 3D Rossby vortices grow and survive over hundreds of years without migration. The localized overdensity which initiated the instability and vortex formation survives the growth of the Rossby wave instability for very long times. When the vortices are no longer sustained by the Rossby wave instability, their shape changes toward more elliptical vortices. This allows them to survive shear-driven destruction, but they may be prone to elliptical instability and slow decay. When the conditions for growing Rossby wave-related instabilities are maintained in the disc, large-scale vortices can survive over very long timescales and may be able to concentrate solids.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&

    Angular momentum transport and large eddy simulations in magnetorotational turbulence: the small Pm limit

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    Angular momentum transport in accretion discs is often believed to be due to magnetohydrodynamic turbulence mediated by the magnetorotational instability. Despite an abundant literature on the MRI, the parameters governing the saturation amplitude of the turbulence are poorly understood and the existence of an asymptotic behavior in the Ohmic diffusion regime is not clearly established. We investigate the properties of the turbulent state in the small magnetic Prandtl number limit. Since this is extremely computationally expensive, we also study the relevance and range of applicability of the most common subgrid scale models for this problem. Unstratified shearing boxes simulations are performed both in the compressible and incompressible limits, with a resolution up to 800 cells per disc scale height. The latter constitutes the largest resolution ever attained for a simulation of MRI turbulence. In the presence of a mean magnetic field threading the domain, angular momentum transport converges to a finite value in the small Pm limit. When the mean vertical field amplitude is such that {\beta}, the ratio between the thermal and magnetic pressure, equals 1000, we find {\alpha}~0.032 when Pm approaches zero. In the case of a mean toroidal field for which {\beta}=100, we find {\alpha}~0.018 in the same limit. Both implicit LES and Chollet-Lesieur closure model reproduces these results for the {\alpha} parameter and the power spectra. A reduction in computational cost of a factor at least 16 (and up to 256) is achieved when using such methods. MRI turbulence operates efficiently in the small Pm limit provided there is a mean magnetic field. Implicit LES offers a practical and efficient mean of investigation of this regime but should be used with care, particularly in the case of a vertical field. Chollet-Lesieur closure model is perfectly suited for simulations done with a spectral code.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&

    Multiple spiral patterns in the transitional disk of HD 100546

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    Protoplanetary disks around young stars harbor many structures related to planetary formation. Of particular interest, spiral patterns were discovered among several of these disks and are expected to be the sign of gravitational instabilities leading to giant planets formation or gravitational perturbations caused by already existing planets. In this context, the star HD100546 presents some specific characteristics with a complex gas and dusty disk including spirals as well as a possible planet in formation. The objective of this study is to analyze high contrast and high angular resolution images of this emblematic system to shed light on critical steps of the planet formation. We retrieved archival images obtained at Gemini in the near IR (Ks band) with the instrument NICI and processed the data using advanced high contrast imaging technique taking advantage of the angular differential imaging. These new images reveal the spiral pattern previously identified with HST with an unprecedented resolution, while the large-scale structure of the disk is mostly erased by the data processing. The single pattern at the southeast in HST images is now resolved into a multi-armed spiral pattern. Using two models of a gravitational perturber orbiting in a gaseous disk we attempted to bring constraints on the characteristics of this perturber assuming each spiral being independent and we derived qualitative conclusions. The non-detection of the northeast spiral pattern observed in HST allows to put a lower limit on the intensity ratio between the two sides of the disk, which if interpreted as forward scattering yields a larger anisotropic scattering than derived in the visible. Also, we found that the spirals are likely spatially resolved with a thickness of about 5-10AU. Finally, we did not detect the candidate forming planet recently discovered in the Lp band, with a mass upper limit of 16-18 MJ.Comment: Accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 10 pages, 8 figure

    Dust-trapping Rossby vortices in protoplanetary disks

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    One of the most challenging steps in planet formation theory is the one leading to the formation of planetesimals of kilometre size. A promising scenario involves the existence of vortices able to concentrate a large amount of dust and grains in their centres. Up to now this scenario has been studied mostly in 2D razor thin disks. A 3D study including, simultaneously, the formation and resulting dust concentration of the vortices with vertical settling, was still missing. The Rossby wave instability self-consistently forms 3D vortices, which have the unique quality of presenting a large scale vertical velocity in their centre. Here we aim to study how this newly discovered effect can alter the dynamic evolution of the dust. We perform global 3D simulations of the RWI in a radially and vertically stratified disk using the code MPI-AMRVAC. After the growth phase of the instability, the gas and solid phases are modelled by a bi-fluid approach, where the dust is considered as a fluid without pressure. Both the drag force of the gas on the dust and the back-reaction of the dust on the gas are included. Multiple grain sizes from 1mm to 5cm are used with a constant density distribution. We obtain in a short timescale a high concentration of the largest grains in the vortices. Indeed, in 3 rotations the dust-to-gas density ratio grows from 10^-2 to unity leading to a concentration of mass up to that of Mars in one vortex. The presence of the radial drift is also at the origin of a dust pile-up at the radius of the vortices. Lastly, the vertical velocity of the gas in the vortex causes the sedimentation process to be reversed, the mm size dust is lifted and higher concentrations are obtained in the upper layer than in the mid-plane.Comment: Accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysic

    Planet-vortex interaction:How a vortex can shepherd a planetary embryo

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    Context: Anticyclonic vortices are considered as a favourable places for trapping dust and forming planetary embryos. On the other hand, they are massive blobs that can interact gravitationally with the planets in the disc. Aims: We aim to study how a vortex interacts gravitationally with a planet which migrates toward it or a planet which is created inside the vortex. Methods: We performed hydrodynamical simulations of a viscous locally isothermal disc using GFARGO and FARGO-ADSG. We set a stationary Gaussian pressure bump in the disc in a way that RWI is triggered. After a large vortex is established, we implanted a low mass planet in the outer disc or inside the vortex and allowed it to migrate. We also examined the effect of vortex strength on the planet migration and checked the validity of the final result in the presence of self-gravity. Results: We noticed regardless of the planet's initial position, the planet is finally locked to the vortex or its migration is stopped in a farther orbital distance in case of a stronger vortex. For the model with the weaker vortex, we studied the effect of different parameters such as background viscosity, background surface density, mass of the planet and different planet positions. In these models, while the trapping time and locking angle of the planet vary for different parameters, the main result, which is the planet-vortex locking, remains valid. We discovered that even a planet with a mass less than 5 * 10^{-7} M_{\star} comes out from the vortex and is locked to it at the same orbital distance. For a stronger vortex, both in non-self-gravitated and self-gravitating models, the planet migration is stopped far away from the radial position of the vortex. This effect can make the vortices a suitable place for continual planet formation under the condition that they save their shape during the planetary growth.Comment: 13 pages, 21 figures,Accepted to be published in A&

    Warping modes in discs around accreting neutron stars

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    The origin and stability of a thin sheet of plasma in the magnetosphere of an accreting neutron star is investigated. First the radial extension of such a magnetospheric disc is explored. Then a mechanism for magnetospheric accretion is proposed, reconsidering the bending wave explored by Agapitou, Papaloizou & Terquem (1997), that was found to be stable in ideal MHD. We show that this warping becomes unstable and can reach high amplitudes, in a variant of Pringle's radiation-driven model for the warping of AGN accretion discs (Pringle (1996)). Finally we discuss how this mechanism might give a clue to explain the observed X-ray kHz QPO of neutron star binaries.Comment: Accepted for publication in MNRA
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