16 research outputs found

    Growth and development patterns in Mustard (Brassica spp.) as influenced by sowing time

    Get PDF
    Mustard is Bangladesh's leading oil crop, produced only during the winter (rabi) season. The sowing date is a key factor determining mustard's optimum growth and development. Because of global warming, gradual changes in season and weather parameters over time is creating a challenge in mustard cultivation. Thus, the present investigation assessed the role of different planting dates on several modern mustard varieties to disclose the optimum growth indicators necessary for elevated biological yield (BY) and harvest index (HI). Three planting times, viz. 31st October (D1), 10th November (D2),  20th November (D3) and six varieties viz. Binasarisha-4 (V1), Binasarisha-9 (V2), Binasarisha-10 (V3), BARI Sarisha-14 (V4), BARI Sarisha-16 (V5), BARI Sarisha-17 (V6) were put on a replicated factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD) during rabi 2019 at BINA Sub-station farm, Magura. At the final harvest stage, outcomes depicted that highest and lowest total dry mass (g/plant) was produced by treatment D3× V5 (64.03) and D1× V1 (15.34), maximum and minimum absolute growth rate (mg/plant/day) by D1× V5 (2389.10) and D2× V1 (184.50), most and least relative growth rate (mg/g/day) in D1× V4 (53.34) and D2× V1 (3.55), maximum and least crop growth rate (g/m2/day) with D1× V3 (55.60) and  D3× V4 (20.04). BY was the peak (8.13, 8.71, 8.77 t/ha) under all plantings (D1, D2, D3) with V5 variety, but HI (44.96%) was most in variety V4 with D2 sowing. Therefore, correlation studies showed a significant positive relationship between biological yield and harvest index. Overall, BARI Sarisha-16 performed well in all three sowing times, and remarkably, BY was rising with delayed planting in the case of Binasarisha-9, Binasarisha-10, and BARI Sarisha-14. This implies that delayed planting might not hamper yield but boost yield to some extent

    Review of coal fired power plants in Bangladesh

    Get PDF
    This article is based on the current and future coal power plants of Bangladesh. Although, it is known to all that, coal fired power plants are the great sources of carbon and other pollutant ingredients. But it has several positive impacts for developing countries like Bangladesh, where there is a lack of natural resources, lands and unstable economy. Bangladesh government has a vision to supply the electricity all over the country of Bangladesh, from Teknaf to Tetulia, and also for the remote islands also. In this paper, energy demand and vision of Bangladesh government is discussed in section 1. Section 2, gives the answer, why coal fired power plant is necessary for Bangladesh. In section 3, impacts of coal fired power plant is discussed and showed all current power plants in a table. Section 4 comprises with the future of coal fired power plant in Bangladesh

    Study on physicochemical status, bacterial analysis and its correlation

    Get PDF
    Swimming pool, as a recreational facility is now a part of current lifestyle that offers social and health benefits. More demand for hotels with swimming pool facility and are highly used during peak seasons. However swimming pool could become a pooling medium of various bacteria came from the bathers, air and soils thus risk of water-borne disease and impose hazard to human health. Therefore, a well disinfected swimming pool that meets the minimum standard requirement must be reached. This study aimed to assess the status of physicochemical parameters including free chlorine, pH, and temperature and to assess status of bacteria analysis of swimming pool water samples. 11 swimming pool water samples were taken from hotels in Klang valley, Malaysia. The physicochemical parameters were tested using colorimetric method using N,N-diethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine and bacteria analysis were obtained by standard plate count (SPC) method. Results are presented in mean and standard deviation. Correlation coefficient is obtained by Pearson‚Äôs correlation statistical test. Results showed mean of temperature 29.64¬Ī1.430C, pH 7.56¬Ī0.40, free chlorine 1.22¬Ī1.16 ppm and bacterial SPC 4,825.64¬Ī8,409.16cfu/ml. Correlation-coefficient between temperature and SPC r: 0.71. The findings showed current physicochemical status of hotel swimming pool water samples met the minimum standard requirement. However, the bacterial SPC is highly above acceptable range and positively correlated to temperature. This indicates bacterial count increase with temperature rise despite of acceptable chlorine level. The acceptable level of chlorine as disinfectant is insufficient to oxidize bacteria thus may put the swimming pool water at risk of spreading water borne diseases. This finding suggests increase dosage of chlorine is required to maintain swimming pool sanitation during hot season in order to provide a safe water recreational facility. However, larger sample size is required to confirm the findings website

    Mapping local patterns of childhood overweight and wasting in low- and middle-income countries between 2000 and 2017

    Get PDF
    A double burden of malnutrition occurs when individuals, household members or communities experience both undernutrition and overweight. Here, we show geospatial estimates of overweight and wasting prevalence among children under 5 years of age in 105 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) from 2000 to 2017 and aggregate these to policy-relevant administrative units. Wasting decreased overall across LMICs between 2000 and 2017, from 8.4% (62.3 (55.1‚Äď70.8) million) to 6.4% (58.3 (47.6‚Äď70.7) million), but is predicted to remain above the World Health Organization‚Äôs Global Nutrition Target of <5% in over half of LMICs by 2025. Prevalence of overweight increased from 5.2% (30 (22.8‚Äď38.5) million) in 2000 to 6.0% (55.5 (44.8‚Äď67.9) million) children aged under 5 years in 2017. Areas most affected by double burden of malnutrition were located in Indonesia, Thailand, southeastern China, Botswana, Cameroon and central Nigeria. Our estimates provide a new perspective to researchers, policy makers and public health agencies in their efforts to address this global childhood syndemic

    Global burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories, 1990‚Äď2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

    Get PDF
    Background: In an era of shifting global agendas and expanded emphasis on non-communicable diseases and injuries along with communicable diseases, sound evidence on trends by cause at the national level is essential. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) provides a systematic scientific assessment of published, publicly available, and contributed data on incidence, prevalence, and mortality for a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive list of diseases and injuries. Methods: GBD estimates incidence, prevalence, mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to 369 diseases and injuries, for two sexes, and for 204 countries and territories. Input data were extracted from censuses, household surveys, civil registration and vital statistics, disease registries, health service use, air pollution monitors, satellite imaging, disease notifications, and other sources. Cause-specific death rates and cause fractions were calculated using the Cause of Death Ensemble model and spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression. Cause-specific deaths were adjusted to match the total all-cause deaths calculated as part of the GBD population, fertility, and mortality estimates. Deaths were multiplied by standard life expectancy at each age to calculate YLLs. A Bayesian meta-regression modelling tool, DisMod-MR 2.1, was used to ensure consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, excess mortality, and cause-specific mortality for most causes. Prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights for mutually exclusive sequelae of diseases and injuries to calculate YLDs. We considered results in the context of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and fertility rate in females younger than 25 years. Uncertainty intervals (UIs) were generated for every metric using the 25th and 975th ordered 1000 draw values of the posterior distribution. Findings: Global health has steadily improved over the past 30 years as measured by age-standardised DALY rates. After taking into account population growth and ageing, the absolute number of DALYs has remained stable. Since 2010, the pace of decline in global age-standardised DALY rates has accelerated in age groups younger than 50 years compared with the 1990‚Äď2010 time period, with the greatest annualised rate of decline occurring in the 0‚Äď9-year age group. Six infectious diseases were among the top ten causes of DALYs in children younger than 10 years in 2019: lower respiratory infections (ranked second), diarrhoeal diseases (third), malaria (fifth), meningitis (sixth), whooping cough (ninth), and sexually transmitted infections (which, in this age group, is fully accounted for by congenital syphilis; ranked tenth). In adolescents aged 10‚Äď24 years, three injury causes were among the top causes of DALYs: road injuries (ranked first), self-harm (third), and interpersonal violence (fifth). Five of the causes that were in the top ten for ages 10‚Äď24 years were also in the top ten in the 25‚Äď49-year age group: road injuries (ranked first), HIV/AIDS (second), low back pain (fourth), headache disorders (fifth), and depressive disorders (sixth). In 2019, ischaemic heart disease and stroke were the top-ranked causes of DALYs in both the 50‚Äď74-year and 75-years-and-older age groups. Since 1990, there has been a marked shift towards a greater proportion of burden due to YLDs from non-communicable diseases and injuries. In 2019, there were 11 countries where non-communicable disease and injury YLDs constituted more than half of all disease burden. Decreases in age-standardised DALY rates have accelerated over the past decade in countries at the lower end of the SDI range, while improvements have started to stagnate or even reverse in countries with higher SDI. Interpretation: As disability becomes an increasingly large component of disease burden and a larger component of health expenditure, greater research and developm nt investment is needed to identify new, more effective intervention strategies. With a rapidly ageing global population, the demands on health services to deal with disabling outcomes, which increase with age, will require policy makers to anticipate these changes. The mix of universal and more geographically specific influences on health reinforces the need for regular reporting on population health in detail and by underlying cause to help decision makers to identify success stories of disease control to emulate, as well as opportunities to improve. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. ¬© 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 licens