125 research outputs found

    The Effects of Astaxanthin on Cognitive Function and Neurodegeneration in Humans: A Critical Review

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    Oxidative stress is a key contributing factor in neurodegeneration, cognitive ageing, cognitive decline, and diminished cognitive longevity. Issues stemming from oxidative stress both in relation to cognition and other areas, such as inflammation, skin health, eye health, and general recovery, have been shown to benefit greatly from antioxidant use. Astaxanthin is a potent antioxidant, which has been outlined to be beneficial for cognitive function both in vitro and in vivo. Given the aforementioned promising effects, research into astaxanthin with a focus on cognitive function has recently been extended to human tissue and human populations. The present critical review explores the effects of astaxanthin on cognitive function and neurodegeneration within human populations and samples with the aim of deciphering the merit and credibility of the research findings and subsequently their potential as a basis for therapeutic use. Implications, limitations, and areas for future research development are also discussed. Key findings include the positive impacts of astaxanthin in relation to improving cognitive function, facilitating neuroprotection, and slowing neurodegeneration within given contexts

    Post-exercise Supplementation of Sodium Bicarbonate Improves Acid Base Balance Recovery and Subsequent High-Intensity Boxing Specific Performance

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    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of post-exercise sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion (0.3 g.kg−1 body mass) on the recovery of acid-base balance (pH, HCO−3, and the SID) and subsequent exercise performance in elite boxers. Seven elite male professional boxers performed an initial bout of exhaustive exercise comprising of a boxing specific high-intensity interval running (HIIR) protocol, followed by a high-intensity run to volitional exhaustion (TLIM1). A 75 min passive recovery then ensued, whereby after 10 min recovery, participants ingested either 0.3 g.kg−1 body mass NaHCO3, or 0.1 g.kg−1 body mass sodium chloride (PLA). Solutions were taste matched and administered double-blind. Participants then completed a boxing specific punch combination protocol, followed by a second high-intensity run to volitional exhaustion (TLIM2). Both initial bouts of TLIM1 were well matched between PLA and NaHCO3 (ICC; r = 0.94, p = 0.002). The change in performance from TLIM1 to TLIM2 was greater following NaHCO3 compared to PLA (+164 ± 90 vs. +73 ± 78 sec; p = 0.02, CI = 45.1, 428.8, g = 1.0). Following ingestion of NaHCO3, pH was greater prior to TLIM2 by 0.11 ± 0.02 units (1.4%) (p < 0.001, CI = 0.09, 0.13, g = 3.4), whilst HCO−3 was greater by 8.8 ± 1.5 mmol.l−1 (26.3%) compared to PLA (p < 0.001, CI = 7.3, 10.2, g = 5.1). The current study suggests that these significant increases in acid base balance during post-exercise recovery facilitated the improvement in the subsequent bout of exercise. Future research should continue to explore the role of NaHCO3 supplementation as a recovery aid in boxing and other combat sports

    Hypoxia mediated release of endothelial microparticles and increased association of S100A12 with circulating neutrophils

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    Microparticles are released from the endothelium under normal homeostatic conditions and have been shown elevated in disease states, most notably those characterised by endothelial dysfunction. The endothelium is sensitive to oxidative stress/status and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression is upregulated upon activated endothelium, furthermore the presence of VCAM-1 on microparticles is known. S100A12, a calcium binding protein part of the S100 family, is shown to be present on circulating leukocytes and is thought a sensitive marker to local inflammatory process, which may be driven by oxidative stress. Eight healthy males were subjected to breathing hypoxic air (15% O2, approximately equivalent to 3000 metres altitude) for 80 minutes in a temperature controlled laboratory and venous blood samples were processed immediately for VCAM-1 microparticles (VCAM-1 MP) and S100A12 association with leukocytes by flow cytometry. A pre-hypoxic blood sample was used for comparison. Both VCAM-1 MP and S100A12 association with neutrophils were significantly elevated post hypoxic breathing later declining to levels observed in the pre-test samples. A similar trend was observed in both cases and a correlation may exist between these two markers in response to hypoxia. These data offer evidence using novel markers of endothelial and circulating blood responses to hypoxia

    Injury incidence and burden in a youth elite football academy: A four-season prospective studyof 551 players aged from under 9 to under 19 years

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    Objective Investigate the incidence and burden of injuries by age group in youth football (soccer) academy players during four consecutive seasons. Methods All injuries that caused time-loss or required medical attention (as per consensus definitions) were prospectively recorded in 551 youth football players from under 9 years to under 19 years. Injury incidence (II) and burden (IB) were calculated as number of injuries per squad season (s-s), as well as for type, location and age groups. Results A total of 2204 injuries were recorded. 40% (n=882) required medical attention and 60% (n=1322) caused time-loss. The total time-loss was 25 034 days. A squad of 25 players sustained an average of 30 time-loss injuries (TLI) per s-s with an IB of 574 days lost per s-s. Compared with the other age groups, U-16 players had the highest TLI incidence per s-s (95% CI lower-upper): II= 59 (52 to 67); IB=992 days; (963 to 1022) and U-18 players had the greatest burden per s-s: II= 42.1 (36.1 to 49.1); IB= 1408 days (1373 to 1444). Across the cohort of players, contusions (II=7.7/s-s), sprains (II=4.9/s-s) and growth-related injuries (II=4.3/s-s) were the most common TLI. Meniscus/cartilage injuries had the greatest injury severity (95% CI lower-upper): II= 0.4 (0.3 to 0.7), IB= 73 days (22 to 181). The burden (95% CI lower-upper) of physeal fractures (II= 0.8; 0.6 to 1.2; IB= 58 days; 33 to 78) was double than non-physeal fractures. Summary At this youth football academy, each squad of 25 players averaged 30 injuries per season which resulted in 574 days lost. The highest incidence of TLI occurred in under-16 players, while the highest IB occurred in under-18 players

    Association of Skeletal Maturity and Injury Risk in Elite Youth Soccer Players:A 4-Season Prospective Study With Survival Analysis

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    Background: The association between injury risk and skeletal maturity in youth soccer has received little attention. Purpose: To prospectively investigate injury patterns and incidence in relation to skeletal maturity in elite youth academy soccer players and to determine the injury risks associated with the skeletal maturity status, both overall and to the lower limb apophysis. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: All injuries that required medical attention and led to time loss were recorded prospectively during 4 consecutive seasons in 283 unique soccer players from U-13 (12 years of age) to U-19 (18 years). The skeletal age (SA) was assessed in 454 player-seasons using the Fels method, and skeletal maturity status (SA minus chronological age) was classified as follows: late, SA >1 year behind chronological age; normal, SA ±1 year of chronological age; early, SA >1 year ahead of chronological age; and mature, SA = 18 years. An adjusted Cox regression model was used to analyze the injury risk. Results: A total of 1565 injuries were recorded; 60% were time-loss injuries, resulting in 17,772 days lost. Adjusted injury-free survival analysis showed a significantly greater hazard ratio (HR) for different status of skeletal maturity: early vs normal (HR = 1.26 [95% CI, 1.11-1.42]; P < .001) and early vs mature (HR = 1.35 [95% CI, 1.17-1.56]; P < .001). Players who were skeletally mature at the wrist had a substantially decreased risk of lower extremity apophyseal injuries (by 45%-61%) compared with late (P < .05), normal (P < .05), and early (P < .001) maturers. Conclusion: Musculoskeletal injury patterns and injury risks varied depending on the players’ skeletal maturity status. Early maturers had the greatest overall adjusted injury risk. Players who were already skeletally mature at the wrist had the lowest risk of lower extremity apophyseal injuries but were still vulnerable for hip and pelvis apophyseal injuries

    Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and individual variability in time to peak pH

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    The aim of this study was to determine the individual variability in time to peak pH after the consumption of a 300mg.kg-1 dose of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). Seventeen active males volunteered to participate in the study (mean ± SD: age 21.38 ± 1.5y; mass 75.8 ± 5.8kg; height 176.8 ± 7.6cm). Participants reported to the laboratory where a resting capillary blood sample was taken aseptically from the fingertip. After this, 300 mg.kg-1 of NaHCO3 in 400ml of water with 50ml of flavoured cordial was ingested. Participants then rested for 90 min during which repeated blood samples were procured at 10 minute intervals for 60 mins and then every 5 min until 90 min. Blood pH concentrations were measured using a blood gas analyser. Results suggested that time to peak pH (64.41±18.78 min) was highly variable with a range of 10-85 min and a coefficient of variation of 29.16%. A bi-modal distribution occurred, at 65 and 75 min. In conclusion, researchers and athletes, when using NaHCO3 as an ergogenic aid, should determine, in advance their time to peak pH to best utilise the added buffering capacity this substance allows