29 research outputs found

    Identifying factors which influence eating disorder risk during behavioral weight management: A consensus study

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    This study aimed to understand clinician, researcher and consumer views regarding factors which influence eating disorder (ED) risk during behavioral weight management, including individual risk factors, intervention strategies and delivery features. Eighty-seven participants were recruited internationally through professional and consumer organizations and social media and completed an online survey. Individual characteristics, intervention strategies (5-point scale) and delivery features (important/unimportant/unsure) were rated. Participants were mostly women (n = 81), aged 35-49 y, from Australia or United States, were clinicians and/or reported lived experience of overweight/obesity and/or ED. There was agreement (64% to 99%) that individual characteristics were relevant to ED risk, with history of ED, weight-based teasing/stigma and weight bias internalization having the highest agreement. Intervention strategies most frequently rated as likely to increase ED risk included those with a focus on weight, prescription (structured diets, exercise plans) and monitoring strategies, e.g., calorie counting. Strategies most frequently rated as likely to decrease ED risk included having a health focus, flexibility and inclusion of psychosocial support. Delivery features considered most important were who delivered the intervention (profession, qualifications) and support (frequency, duration). Findings will inform future research to quantitatively assess which of these factors predict eating disorder risk, to inform screening and monitoring protocols

    The Hepatic Compensatory Response to Elevated Systemic Sulfide Promotes Diabetes

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    Impaired hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes. Increased sulfide production or sulfide donor compounds may beneficially regulate hepatic metabolism. Disposal of sulfide through the sulfide oxidation pathway (SOP) is critical for maintaining sulfide within a safe physiological range. We show that mice lacking the liver- enriched mitochondrial SOP enzyme thiosulfate sulfurtransferase (Tst−/− mice) exhibit high circulating sulfide, increased gluconeogenesis, hypertriglyceridemia, and fatty liver. Unexpectedly, hepatic sulfide levels are normal in Tst−/− mice because of exaggerated induction of sulfide disposal, with associated suppression of global protein persulfidation and nuclear respiratory factor 2 target protein levels. Hepatic proteomic and persulfidomic profiles converge on gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism, revealing a selective deficit in medium-chain fatty acid oxidation in Tst−/− mice. We reveal a critical role of TST in hepatic metabolism that has implications for sulfide donor strategies in the context of metabolic disease

    Conopressin-T from Conus tulipa reveals an antagonist switch in vasopressin-like peptide

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    We report the discovery of conopressing-T, a novel bioactive peptide isolated from Conus tulipa venom. Conopressin-T belongs to the vasopressin-like peptide family and displays high sequence homology to the mammalian hormone oxytocin (OT) and to vasotocin, the endogenerous vasopressin analogue found in the teleost fish, the cone snail's prey

    Eating disorders in weight-related therapy (EDIT): protocol for a systematic review with individual participant data meta-analysis of eating disorder risk in behavioural weight management

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    The Eating Disorders In weight-related Therapy (EDIT) Collaboration brings together data from randomised controlled trials of behavioural weight management interventions to identify individual participant risk factors and intervention strategies that contribute to eating disorder risk. We present a protocol for a systematic review and individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis which aims to identify participants at risk of developing eating disorders, or related symptoms, during or after weight management interventions conducted in adolescents or adults with overweight or obesity. We systematically searched four databases up to March 2022 and clinical trials registries to May 2022 to identify randomised controlled trials of weight management interventions conducted in adolescents or adults with overweight or obesity that measured eating disorder risk at pre- and post-intervention or follow-up. Authors from eligible trials have been invited to share their deidentified IPD. Two IPD meta-analyses will be conducted. The first IPD meta-analysis aims to examine participant level factors associated with a change in eating disorder scores during and following a weight management intervention. To do this we will examine baseline variables that predict change in eating disorder risk within intervention arms. The second IPD meta-analysis aims to assess whether there are participant level factors that predict whether participation in an intervention is more or less likely than no intervention to lead to a change in eating disorder risk. To do this, we will examine if there are differences in predictors of eating disorder risk between intervention and no-treatment control arms. The primary outcome will be a standardised mean difference in global eating disorder score from baseline to immediately post-intervention and at 6- and 12- months follow-up. Identifying participant level risk factors predicting eating disorder risk will inform screening and monitoring protocols to allow early identification and intervention for those at risk

    Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker initiation on organ support-free days in patients hospitalized with COVID-19

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    IMPORTANCE Overactivation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may contribute to poor clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Objective To determine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) initiation improves outcomes in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In an ongoing, adaptive platform randomized clinical trial, 721 critically ill and 58 non–critically ill hospitalized adults were randomized to receive an RAS inhibitor or control between March 16, 2021, and February 25, 2022, at 69 sites in 7 countries (final follow-up on June 1, 2022). INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomized to receive open-label initiation of an ACE inhibitor (n = 257), ARB (n = 248), ARB in combination with DMX-200 (a chemokine receptor-2 inhibitor; n = 10), or no RAS inhibitor (control; n = 264) for up to 10 days. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was organ support–free days, a composite of hospital survival and days alive without cardiovascular or respiratory organ support through 21 days. The primary analysis was a bayesian cumulative logistic model. Odds ratios (ORs) greater than 1 represent improved outcomes. RESULTS On February 25, 2022, enrollment was discontinued due to safety concerns. Among 679 critically ill patients with available primary outcome data, the median age was 56 years and 239 participants (35.2%) were women. Median (IQR) organ support–free days among critically ill patients was 10 (–1 to 16) in the ACE inhibitor group (n = 231), 8 (–1 to 17) in the ARB group (n = 217), and 12 (0 to 17) in the control group (n = 231) (median adjusted odds ratios of 0.77 [95% bayesian credible interval, 0.58-1.06] for improvement for ACE inhibitor and 0.76 [95% credible interval, 0.56-1.05] for ARB compared with control). The posterior probabilities that ACE inhibitors and ARBs worsened organ support–free days compared with control were 94.9% and 95.4%, respectively. Hospital survival occurred in 166 of 231 critically ill participants (71.9%) in the ACE inhibitor group, 152 of 217 (70.0%) in the ARB group, and 182 of 231 (78.8%) in the control group (posterior probabilities that ACE inhibitor and ARB worsened hospital survival compared with control were 95.3% and 98.1%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this trial, among critically ill adults with COVID-19, initiation of an ACE inhibitor or ARB did not improve, and likely worsened, clinical outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT0273570

    Dimethyl fumarate in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial