6,282 research outputs found

    The external benefits of higher education

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    The private market benefits of education are widely studied at the micro level, although the magnitude of their macroeconomic impact is disputed. However, there are additional benefits of education, which are less well understood. In this paper the macroeconomic effects of external benefits of higher education are estimated using the “micro-to-macro” simulation approach. Two types of externalities are explored: technology spillovers and productivity spillovers in the labour market. These links are illustrated and the results suggest they could be very large. However, this is qualified by the dearth of microeconomic evidence, for which we hope to encourage further work

    An In-Depth Analysis of the Slingshot Interconnect

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    The interconnect is one of the most critical components in large scale computing systems, and its impact on the performance of applications is going to increase with the system size. In this paper, we will describe Slingshot, an interconnection network for large scale computing systems. Slingshot is based on high-radix switches, which allow building exascale and hyperscale datacenters networks with at most three switch-to-switch hops. Moreover, Slingshot provides efficient adaptive routing and congestion control algorithms, and highly tunable traffic classes. Slingshot uses an optimized Ethernet protocol, which allows it to be interoperable with standard Ethernet devices while providing high performance to HPC applications. We analyze the extent to which Slingshot provides these features, evaluating it on microbenchmarks and on several applications from the datacenter and AI worlds, as well as on HPC applications. We find that applications running on Slingshot are less affected by congestion compared to previous generation networks.Comment: To be published in Proceedings of The International Conference for High Performance Computing Networking, Storage, and Analysis (SC '20) (2020

    K Corrections For Type Ia Supernovae and a Test for Spatial Variation of the Hubble Constant

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    Cross-filter K corrections for a sample of "normal" Type Ia supernovae (SNe) have been calculated for a range of epochs. With appropriate filter choices, the combined statistical and systematic K correction dispersion of the full sample lies within 0.05 mag for redshifts z<0.7. This narrow dispersion of the calculated K correction allows the Type Ia to be used as a cosmological probe. We use the K corrections with observations of seven SNe at redshifts 0.3 < z <0.5 to bound the possible difference between the locally measured Hubble constant (H_L) and the true cosmological Hubble constant (H_0).Comment: 6 pages, 3 Postscript figures, uuencoded uses crckapb.sty and psfig.sty. To appear in Thermonuclear Supernovae (NATO ASI), eds. R. Canal, P. Ruiz-LaPuente, and J. Isern. Postscript version is also available at http://www-supernova.lbl.gov

    Cosmology from Type Ia Supernovae

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    This presentation reports on first evidence for a low-mass-density/positive-cosmological-constant universe that will expand forever, based on observations of a set of 40 high-redshift supernovae. The experimental strategy, data sets, and analysis techniques are described. More extensive analyses of these results with some additional methods and data are presented in the more recent LBNL report #41801 (Perlmutter et al., 1998; accepted for publication in Ap.J.), astro-ph/9812133 . This Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory reprint is a reduction of a poster presentation from the Cosmology Display Session #85 on 9 January 1998 at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Washington D.C. It is also available on the World Wide Web at http://supernova.LBL.gov/ This work has also been referenced in the literature by the pre-meeting abstract citation: Perlmutter et al., B.A.A.S., volume 29, page 1351 (1997).Comment: 9 pages, 8 color figs. Presented at Jan '98 AAS Meeting, also cited as BAAS,29,1351(1997). Archived here in response to requests; see more extensive analyses in ApJ paper (astro-ph/9812133

    Implications For The Hubble Constant from the First Seven Supernovae at z >= 0.35

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    The Supernova Cosmology Project has discovered over twenty-eight supernovae (SNe) at 0.35 <z < 0.65 in an ongoing program that uses Type Ia SNe as high-redshift distance indicators. Here we present measurements of the ratio between the locally observed and global Hubble constants, H_0^L/H_0^G, based on the first 7 SNe of this high-redshift data set compared with 18 SNe at z <= 0.1 from the Calan/Tololo survey. If Omega_M <= 1, then light-curve-width corrected SN magnitudes yield H_0^L/H_0^G < 1.10 (95% confidence level) in both a Lambda=0 and a flat universe. The analysis using the SNe Ia as standard candles without a light-curve-width correction yields similar results. These results rule out the hypothesis that the discrepant ages of the Universe derived from globular clusters and recent measurements of the Hubble constant are attributable to a locally underdense bubble. Using the Cepheid-distance-calibrated absolute magnitudes for SNe Ia of Sandage (1996}, we can also measure the global Hubble constant, H_0^G. If Omega_M >= 0.2, we find that H_0^G < 70 km/s/Mpc in a Lambda=0 universe and H_0^G < 78 km/s/Mpc in a flat universe, correcting the distant and local SN apparent magnitudes for light curve width. Lower results for H_0^G are obtained if the magnitudes are not width corrected.Comment: 13 pages, 2 Postscript figures. Preprint also available at http://www-supernova.lbl.gov . To appear in ApJ Letter

    Surface code quantum computing by lattice surgery

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    In recent years, surface codes have become a leading method for quantum error correction in theoretical large scale computational and communications architecture designs. Their comparatively high fault-tolerant thresholds and their natural 2-dimensional nearest neighbour (2DNN) structure make them an obvious choice for large scale designs in experimentally realistic systems. While fundamentally based on the toric code of Kitaev, there are many variants, two of which are the planar- and defect- based codes. Planar codes require fewer qubits to implement (for the same strength of error correction), but are restricted to encoding a single qubit of information. Interactions between encoded qubits are achieved via transversal operations, thus destroying the inherent 2DNN nature of the code. In this paper we introduce a new technique enabling the coupling of two planar codes without transversal operations, maintaining the 2DNN of the encoded computer. Our lattice surgery technique comprises splitting and merging planar code surfaces, and enables us to perform universal quantum computation (including magic state injection) while removing the need for braided logic in a strictly 2DNN design, and hence reduces the overall qubit resources for logic operations. Those resources are further reduced by the use of a rotated lattice for the planar encoding. We show how lattice surgery allows us to distribute encoded GHZ states in a more direct (and overhead friendly) manner, and how a demonstration of an encoded CNOT between two distance 3 logical states is possible with 53 physical qubits, half of that required in any other known construction in 2D.Comment: Published version. 29 pages, 18 figure

    Immune or genetic-mediated disruption of CASPR2 causes pain hypersensitivity due to enhanced primary afferent excitability

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    Human autoantibodies to contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) are often associated with neuropathic pain, and CASPR2 mutations have been linked to autism spectrum disorders, in which sensory dysfunction is increasingly recognized. Human CASPR2 autoantibodies, when injected into mice, were peripherally restricted and resulted in mechanical pain-related hypersensitivity in the absence of neural injury. We therefore investigated the mechanism by which CASPR2 modulates nociceptive function. Mice lacking CASPR2 (Cntnap2 ) demonstrated enhanced pain-related hypersensitivity to noxious mechanical stimuli, heat, and algogens. Both primary afferent excitability and subsequent nociceptive transmission within the dorsal horn were increased in Cntnap2 mice. Either immune or genetic-mediated ablation of CASPR2 enhanced the excitability of DRG neurons in a cell-autonomous fashion through regulation of Kv1 channel expression at the soma membrane. This is the first example of passive transfer of an autoimmune peripheral neuropathic pain disorder and demonstrates that CASPR2 has a key role in regulating cell-intrinsic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron excitability

    The Type Ia Supernova Rate at z ~ 0.4

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    We present the first measurement of the rate of Type Ia supernovae at high redshift. The result is derived using a large subset of data from the Supernova Cosmology Project as described in more detail at this meeting by Perlmutter et al. (1996). We present our methods for estimating the numbers of galaxies and the number of solar luminosities to which the survey is sensitive, the supernova detection efficiency and hence the control time. We derive a rest-frame Type Ia supernova rate at z~0.4 of 0.82^+0.54_-0.37 ^+0.42_-0.32 h^2 SNu where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second includes systematic effects.Comment: 9 pages, 3 Postscript figures, uuencoded uses crckapb.sty and psfig.sty. To appear in Thermonuclear Supernovae (NATO ASI), eds. R. Canal, P. Ruiz-LaPuente, and J. Isern. Postscript version is also available at http://www-supernova.lbl.gov

    The Type Ia Supernova Rate at z∌0.4\sim 0.4

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    We present the first measurement of the rate of Type Ia supernovae at high redshift. The result is derived using a large subset of data from the Supernova Cosmology Project. Three supernovae were discovered in a surveyed area of 1.7 square degrees. The survey spanned a ∌3\sim 3 week baseline and used images with 3σ3\sigma limiting magnitude of R∌23R\sim 23. We present our methods for estimating the numbers of galaxies and the number of solar luminosities to which the survey is sensitive, and the supernova detection efficiency which is used to determine the control time, the effective time for which the survey is sensitive to a Type Ia event. We derive a rest-frame Type Ia supernova rate at z∌0.4z\sim0.4 of 0.82 −0.37+0.54 −0.25+0.370.82\ {^{+0.54}_{-0.37}}\ {^{+0.37}_{-0.25}} h2h^2 SNu (1 SNu = 1 SN per century per 101010^{10}\Lbsun), where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second includes systematic effects. For the purposes of observers, we also determine the rate of SNe, per sky area surveyed, to be 34.4 −16.2+23.9 34.4\ {^{+23.9}_{-16.2}} SNe\ year−1deg−2\rm year^{-1} deg^{-2} for SN magnitudes in the range 21.3<R<22.321.3 < R < 22.3.Comment: 33 pages, To be published in December 10, 1996 issue of ApJ Vol 47

    Scheduled Discoveries of 7+ High-Redshift Supernovae: First Cosmology Results and Bounds on q_0

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    Our search for high-redshift Type Ia supernovae discovered, in its first years, a sample of seven supernovae. Using a "batch" search strategy, almost all were discovered before maximum light and were observed over the peak of their light curves. The spectra and light curves indicate that almost all were Type Ia supernovae at redshifts z = 0.35 -- 0.5. These high-redshift supernovae can provide a distance indicator and "standard clock" to study the cosmological parameters q_0, Lambda, Omega_0, and H_0. This presentation and the following presentations of Kim et al. (1996), Goldhaber et al. (1996), and Pain et al. (1996) will discuss observation strategies and rates, analysis and calibration issues, the sources of measurement uncertainty, and the cosmological implications, including bounds on q_0, of these first high-redshift supernovae from our ongoing search.Comment: 15 pages, 6 Postscript figures, uuencoded uses crckapb.sty and psfig.sty. To appear in Thermonuclear Supernovae (NATO ASI), eds. R. Canal, P. Ruiz-LaPuente, and J. Isern. Postscript version is also available at http://www-supernova.lbl.gov
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