819 research outputs found

    Inducing Private Wildfire Risk Mitigation: Experimental Investigation of Measures on Adjacent Public Lands

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    Increasing private wildfire risk mitigation is an important part of the larger forest restoration policy challenge. Data from an economic experiment are used to evaluate the effectiveness of providing fuel treatments on public land adjacent to private land to induce private wildfire risk mitigation. Results show evidence of “crowding out” where public spending can decrease the level of private risk mitigation. However, a policy prescription that ameliorates this crowding out is identified. Participants undertake more mitigation when fuel treatments on publicly owned lands are conditional on a threshold level of private mitigation effort and information describing each participant’s spending is provided. Key Words:

    Inducing private wildfire risk mitigation: Experimental investigation of measures on adjacent public lands

    Get PDF
    Increasing private wildfire risk mitigation is an important part of the larger forest restoration policy challenge. Data from an economic experiment are used to evaluate the effectiveness of providing fuel treatments on public land adjacent to private land to induce private wildfire risk mitigation. Results show evidence of “crowding out” where public spending can decrease the level of private risk mitigation. However, a policy prescription that ameliorates this crowding out is identified. Participants undertake more mitigation when fuel treatments on publicly owned lands are conditional on a threshold level of private mitigation effort and information describing each participant’s spending is provided

    Use of Reversible Contraceptive Methods Among U.S. Women with Physical or Sensory Disabilities

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    Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/138241/1/psrh12031.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/138241/2/psrh12031_am.pd

    The Escape of Ionizing Photons from OB Associations in Disk Galaxies: Radiation Transfer Through Superbubbles

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    By solving the time-dependent radiation transfer problem of stellar radiation through evolving superbubbles within a smoothly varying HI distribution, we estimate the fraction of ionizing photons emitted by OB associations that escapes the HI disk of our Galaxy into the halo and intergalactic medium (IGM). We consider both coeval star-formation and a Gaussian star-formation history with a time spread sigma_t = 2 Myr. We consider both a uniform H I distribution and a two-phase (cloud/intercloud) model, with a negligible filling factor of hot gas. We find that the shells of the expanding superbubbles quickly trap or attenuate the ionizing flux, so that most of the escaping radiation escapes shortly after the formation of the superbubble. For the coeval star-formation history, the total fraction of Lyman Continuum photons that escape both sides of the disk in the solar vicinity is f_esc approx 0.15 +/- 0.05. For the Gaussian star formation history, f_esc approx 0.06 +/- 0.03, a value roughly a factor of two lower than the results of Dove & Shull (1994), where superbubbles were not considered. For a local production rate of ionizing photons Psi_LyC = 4.95 X 10^7 cm^{-2} s^{-1}, the flux escaping the disk is Phi_LyC approx (1.5-3.0) X 10^6 cm^{-2} s^{-1} for coeval and Gaussian star formation, comparable to the flux required to sustain the Reynolds layer.Comment: Revised version (expanded), accepted for publication by ApJ, 38 pages, 8 figures, aasms4.sty and aabib.sty files include

    Versatile Controller for Infrared Lamp and Heater Arrays

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    A paper describes a modular design for new controllers for infrared heating during cruise stage solar thermal vacuum test of the Mars Science Laboratory. The controllers had to be easy to use and maintain, used with a wide variety of different control schemes, and made using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components wherever possible

    Assessing uncertainties in scattering correction algorithms for reflective tube absorption measurements made with a WET Labs ac-9

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    In situ absorption measurements collected with a WET Labs ac-9 employing a reflective tube approach were scatter corrected using several possible methods and compared to reference measurements made by a PSICAM to assess performance. Overall, two correction methods performed best for the stations sampled: one using an empirical relationship between the ac-9 and PSICAM to derive the scattering error (ε) in the nearinfrared (NIR), and one where ε was independently derived from concurrent measurements of the volume scattering function (VSF). Application of the VSF-based method may be more universally applicable, although difficult to routinely apply because of the lack of commercially available VSF instrumentation. The performance of the empirical approach is encouraging as it relies only on the ac meter measurement and may be readily applied to historical data, although there are inevitably some inherent assumptions about particle composition that hinder universal applicability. For even the best performing methods, residual errors of 20% or more were commonly observed for many water types. For clear ocean waters, a conventional baseline subtraction with the assumption of negligible near-IR absorption performed as well or better than the above methods because propagated uncertainties were lower than observed with the proportional method

    Can Hearing Aids Delay Time to Diagnosis of Dementia, Depression, or Falls in Older Adults?

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    Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/153191/1/jgs16109-sup-0001-TableS1.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/153191/2/jgs16109_am.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/153191/3/jgs16109.pd

    Global Savings, Assets and Financial Inclusion: Lessons, Challenges, and Directions

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    Global Savings, Assets and Financial Inclusion: Lessons, Challenges, and Direction

    Long-term trends in the longevity of scientific elites: evidence from the British and the Russian academies of science.

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    National science academies represent intellectual elites and vanguard groups in the achievement of longevity. We estimated life expectancy (LE) at age 50 of members of the British Royal Society (RS) for the years 1670-2007 and of members of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) for the years 1750-2006. The longevity of academicians was higher than that of their corresponding national populations, with the gap widening from the 1950s. Since the 1980s, LE in the RS has been higher than the maximum LE among all high-income countries. In each period, LE in the RS was greater than in the RAS, although since the 1950s it has risen in parallel in the two academies. This steep increase shared by academicians in Britain and Russia suggests that general populations have the potential for a substantial increase in survival to high ages
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