146 research outputs found

    The Geometry of The Entropic Principle and the Shape of the Universe

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    Ooguri, Vafa, and Verlinde have outlined an approach to two-dimensional accelerating string cosmology which is based on topological string theory, the ultimate objective being to develop a string-theoretic understanding of "creating the Universe from nothing". The key technical idea here is to assign *two different* Lorentzian spacetimes to a certain Euclidean space. Here we give a simple framework which allows this to be done in a systematic way. This framework allows us to extend the construction to higher dimensions. We find then that the general shape of the spatial sections of the newly created Universe is constrained by the OVV formalism: the sections have to be flat and compact.Comment: 24 pages, 4 eps figures, improved exposition of Euclidean/Lorentzian smoothin

    A Holographic Bound on Cosmic Magnetic Fields

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    Magnetic fields large enough to be observable are ubiquitous in astrophysics, even at extremely large length scales. This has led to the suggestion that such fields are seeded at very early (inflationary) times, and subsequently amplified by various processes involving, for example, dynamo effects. Many such mechanisms give rise to extremely large magnetic fields at the end of inflationary reheating, and therefore also during the quark-gluon plasma epoch of the early universe. Such plasmas have a well-known holographic description in terms of a thermal asymptotically AdS black hole. We show that holography imposes an upper bound on the intensity of magnetic fields (  3.6×1018    gauss\approx \; 3.6 \times 10^{18}\;\; \text{gauss} at the hadronization temperature) in these circumstances; this is above, but not far above, the values expected in some models of cosmic magnetogenesis.Comment: 16 pages, 2 figures, explicit numerical value given for the bound, improved discussion of implications for superadiabatic amplification, version to appear in Nucl Phys

    How Does the Quark-Gluon Plasma Know the Collision Energy?

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    Heavy ion collisions at the LHC facility generate a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) which, for central collisions, has a higher energy density and temperature than the plasma generated in central collisions at the RHIC. But sufficiently peripheral LHC collisions give rise to plasmas which have the \emph{same} energy density and temperature as the "central" RHIC plasmas. One might assume that the two versions of the QGP would have very similar properties (for example, with regard to jet quenching), but recent investigations have suggested that \emph{they do not}: the plasma "knows" that the overall collision energy is different in the two cases. We argue, using a gauge-gravity analysis, that the strong magnetic fields arising in one case (peripheral collisions), but not the other, may be relevant here. If the residual magnetic field in peripheral LHC plasmas is of the order of at least eB5mπ2eB\,\approx \,5\,m^2_{\pi}, then the model predicts modifications of the relevant quenching parameter which approach those recently reported.Comment: 16 pages, one figure; version to appear in Nuclear Physics

    Angular Momentum in QGP Holography

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    The quark chemical potential is one of the fundamental parameters describing the Quark-Gluon Plasma produced by sufficiently energetic heavy-ion collisions. It is not large at the extremely high temperatures probed by the LHC, but it plays a key role in discussions of the beam energy scan programmes at the RHIC and other facilities. On the other hand, collisions at such energies typically (that is, in peripheral collisions) give rise to very high values of the angular momentum density. Here we explain that holographic estimates of the quark chemical potential of a rotating sample of plasma can be very considerably improved by taking the angular momentum into account.Comment: 22 pages, 2 figures, version to appear in Nuclear Physics

    Stringy Instability of Topologically Non-Trivial Ads Black Holes and of desitter S-Brane Spacetimes

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    Seiberg and Witten have discussed a specifically "stringy" kind of instability which arises in connection with "large" branes in asymptotically AdS spacetimes. It is easy to see that this instability actually arises in most five-dimensional asymptotically AdS black hole string spacetimes with non-trivial horizon topologies. We point out that this is a more serious problem than it may at first seem, for it cannot be resolved even by taking into account the effect of the branes on the geometry of spacetime. [It is ultimately due to the {\em topology} of spacetime, not its geometry.] Next, assuming the validity of some kind of dS/CFT correspondence, we argue that asymptotically deSitter versions of the Hull-Strominger-Gutperle S-brane spacetimes are also unstable in this "topological" sense, at least in the case where the R-symmetries are preserved. We conjecture that this is due to the unrestrained creation of "late" branes, the spacelike analogue of large branes, at very late cosmological times.Comment: References added, NPB versio

    Orbifold Physics and de Sitter Spacetime

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    It is generally believed the way to resolve the black hole information paradox in string theory is to embed the black hole in anti-deSitter spacetime -- without of course claiming that Schwarzschild-AdS is a realistic spacetime. Here we propose that, similarly, the best way to study topologically non-trivial versions of de Sitter spacetime from a stringy point of view is to embed them in an anti-de Sitter orbifold bulk, again without claiming that this is literally how de Sitter arises in string theory. Our results indicate that string theory may rule out the more complex spacetime topologies which are compatible with local de Sitter geometry, while still allowing the simplest versions.Comment: Introduction re-written to explain our attitude to the use of Anti-de Sitter spacetime. 33 pages, 5 diagrams, Nuclear Physics B versio

    AdS/CFT For Non-Boundary Manifolds

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    In its Euclidean formulation, the AdS/CFT correspondence begins as a study of Yang-Mills conformal field theories on the sphere, S^4. It has been successfully extended, however, to S^1 X S^3 and to the torus T^4. It is natural to hope that it can be made to work for any manifold on which it is possible to define a stable Yang-Mills conformal field theory. We consider a possible classification of such manifolds, and show how to deal with the most obvious objection : the existence of manifolds which cannot be represented as boundaries. We confirm Witten's suggestion that this can be done with the help of a brane in the bulk.Comment: 21 pages, 1 eps figure (1000x500), remarks on p-brane stress-tensor clarifie
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