73 research outputs found

    Preferences of fourth grade children for certain social studies activities.

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    Thesis (Ed.M.)--Boston Universit

    Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of Gamma-ray Pulsars PSR J1057-5226, J1709-4429, and J1952+3252

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    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data have confirmed the pulsed emission from all six high-confidence gamma-ray pulsars previously known from the EGRET observations. We report results obtained from the analysis of 13 months of LAT data for three of these pulsars (PSR J1057-5226, PSR J1709-4429, and PSR J1952+3252) each of which had some unique feature among the EGRET pulsars. The excellent sensitivity of LAT allows more detailed analysis of the evolution of the pulse profile with energy and also of the variation of the spectral shape with phase. We measure the cutoff energy of the pulsed emission from these pulsars for the first time and provide a more complete picture of the emission mechanism. The results confirm some, but not all, of the features seen in the EGRET data.Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJ. 45 pages, 12 figures, 11 tables. Corresponding authors: O. Celik, F. Gargano, T. Reposeur, D.J. Thompso

    Mortality and losses to follow-up among adolescents living with HIV in the IeDEA global cohort collaboration

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    Introduction: We assessed mortality and losses to follow-up (LTFU) during adolescence in routine care settings in the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) consortium. Methods: Cohorts in the Asia-Pacific, the Caribbean, Central, and South America, and sub-Saharan Africa (Central, East, Southern, West) contributed data, and included adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) enrolled from January 2003 and aged 10 to 19 years (period of adolescence) while under care up to database closure (June 2016). Follow-up started at age 10 years or the first clinic visit, whichever was later. Entering care at <15 years was a proxy for perinatal infection, while entering care ≥15 years represented infection acquired during adolescence. Competing risk regression was used to assess associations with death and LTFU among those ever receiving triple-drug antiretroviral therapy (triple-ART). Results: Of the 61,242 ALHIV from 270 clinics in 34 countries included in the analysis, 69% (n = 42,138) entered care <15 years of age (53% female), and 31% (n = 19,104) entered care ≥15 years (81% female). During adolescence, 3.9% died, 30% were LTFU and 8.1% were transferred. For those with infection acquired perinatally versus during adolescence, the four-year cumulative incidences of mortality were 3.9% versus 5.4% and of LTFU were 26% versus 69% respectively (both p < 0.001). Overall, there were higher hazards of death for females (adjusted sub-hazard ratio (asHR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07 to 1.33), and those starting treatment at ≥5 years of age (highest asHR for age ≥15: 8.72, 95% CI 5.85 to 13.02), and in care in mostly urban (asHR 1.40, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.75) and mostly rural settings (asHR 1.39, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.87) compared to urban settings. Overall, higher hazards of LTFU were observed among females (asHR 1.12, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.17), and those starting treatment at age ≥5 years (highest asHR for age ≥15: 11.11, 95% CI 9.86 to 12.53), in care at district hospitals (asHR 1.27, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.37) or in rural settings (asHR 1.21, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.29), and starting triple-ART after 2006 (highest asHR for 2011 to 2016 1.84, 95% CI 1.71 to 1.99). Conclusions: Both mortality and LTFU were worse among those entering care at ≥15 years. ALHIV should be evaluated apart from younger children and adults to identify population-specific reasons for death and LTFU

    Protein Glycosylation in Helicobacter pylori: Beyond the Flagellins?

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    Glycosylation of flagellins by pseudaminic acid is required for virulence in Helicobacter pylori. We demonstrate that, in H. pylori, glycosylation extends to proteins other than flagellins and to sugars other than pseudaminic acid. Several candidate glycoproteins distinct from the flagellins were detected via ProQ-emerald staining and DIG- or biotin- hydrazide labeling of the soluble and outer membrane fractions of wild-type H. pylori, suggesting that protein glycosylation is not limited to the flagellins. DIG-hydrazide labeling of proteins from pseudaminic acid biosynthesis pathway mutants showed that the glycosylation of some glycoproteins is not dependent on the pseudaminic acid glycosylation pathway, indicating the existence of a novel glycosylation pathway. Fractions enriched in glycoprotein candidates by ion exchange chromatography were used to extract the sugars by acid hydrolysis. High performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection revealed characteristic monosaccharide peaks in these extracts. The monosaccharides were then identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The spectra are consistent with sugars such as 5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-L-manno-nonulosonic acid (Pse5Ac7Ac) previously described on flagellins, 5-acetamidino-7-acetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-L-manno-nonulosonic acid (Pse5Am7Ac), bacillosamine derivatives and a potential legionaminic acid derivative (Leg5AmNMe7Ac) which were not previously identified in H. pylori. These data open the way to the study of the mechanism and role of protein glycosylation on protein function and virulence in H. pylori

    Measurement of the energy asymmetry in t(t)over-barj production at 13 TeV with the ATLAS experiment and interpretation in the SMEFT framework

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    A measurement of the energy asymmetry in jet-associated top-quark pair production is presented using 139 fb−1139\,{\mathrm {fb}}^{-1} 139 fb - 1 of data collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider during pp collisions at s=13 TeV\sqrt{s}=13\,\text {TeV} s = 13 TeV . The observable measures the different probability of top and antitop quarks to have the higher energy as a function of the jet scattering angle with respect to the beam axis. The energy asymmetry is measured in the semileptonic ttˉt{\bar{t}} t t ¯ decay channel, and the hadronically decaying top quark must have transverse momentum above 350 GeV350\,\text {GeV} 350 GeV . The results are corrected for detector effects to particle level in three bins of the scattering angle of the associated jet. The measurement agrees with the SM prediction at next-to-leading-order accuracy in quantum chromodynamics in all three bins. In the bin with the largest expected asymmetry, where the jet is emitted perpendicular to the beam, the energy asymmetry is measured to be −0.043±0.020-0.043\pm 0.020 - 0.043 ± 0.020 , in agreement with the SM prediction of −0.037±0.003-0.037\pm 0.003 - 0.037 ± 0.003 . Interpreting this result in the framework of the Standard Model effective field theory (SMEFT), it is shown that the energy asymmetry is sensitive to the top-quark chirality in four-quark operators and is therefore a valuable new observable in global SMEFT fits

    3 years of liraglutide versus placebo for type 2 diabetes risk reduction and weight management in individuals with prediabetes: a randomised, double-blind trial

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    Background: Liraglutide 3·0 mg was shown to reduce bodyweight and improve glucose metabolism after the 56-week period of this trial, one of four trials in the SCALE programme. In the 3-year assessment of the SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes trial we aimed to evaluate the proportion of individuals with prediabetes who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Methods: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adults with prediabetes and a body-mass index of at least 30 kg/m2, or at least 27 kg/m2 with comorbidities, were randomised 2:1, using a telephone or web-based system, to once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide 3·0 mg or matched placebo, as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity. Time to diabetes onset by 160 weeks was the primary outcome, evaluated in all randomised treated individuals with at least one post-baseline assessment. The trial was conducted at 191 clinical research sites in 27 countries and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01272219. Findings: The study ran between June 1, 2011, and March 2, 2015. We randomly assigned 2254 patients to receive liraglutide (n=1505) or placebo (n=749). 1128 (50%) participants completed the study up to week 160, after withdrawal of 714 (47%) participants in the liraglutide group and 412 (55%) participants in the placebo group. By week 160, 26 (2%) of 1472 individuals in the liraglutide group versus 46 (6%) of 738 in the placebo group were diagnosed with diabetes while on treatment. The mean time from randomisation to diagnosis was 99 (SD 47) weeks for the 26 individuals in the liraglutide group versus 87 (47) weeks for the 46 individuals in the placebo group. Taking the different diagnosis frequencies between the treatment groups into account, the time to onset of diabetes over 160 weeks among all randomised individuals was 2·7 times longer with liraglutide than with placebo (95% CI 1·9 to 3·9, p&lt;0·0001), corresponding with a hazard ratio of 0·21 (95% CI 0·13–0·34). Liraglutide induced greater weight loss than placebo at week 160 (–6·1 [SD 7·3] vs −1·9% [6·3]; estimated treatment difference −4·3%, 95% CI −4·9 to −3·7, p&lt;0·0001). Serious adverse events were reported by 227 (15%) of 1501 randomised treated individuals in the liraglutide group versus 96 (13%) of 747 individuals in the placebo group. Interpretation: In this trial, we provide results for 3 years of treatment, with the limitation that withdrawn individuals were not followed up after discontinuation. Liraglutide 3·0 mg might provide health benefits in terms of reduced risk of diabetes in individuals with obesity and prediabetes. Funding: Novo Nordisk, Denmark

    Effects of Anacetrapib in Patients with Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease