36 research outputs found

    Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy as Topological Entanglement Entropy

    Full text link
    Black holes in 2+1 dimensions enjoy long range topological interactions similar to those of non-abelian anyon excitations in a topologically ordered medium. Using this observation, we compute the topological entanglement entropy of BTZ black holes, via the established formula S_top = log(S^a_0), with S_b^a the modular S-matrix of the Virasoro characters chi_a(tau). We find a precise match with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. This result adds a new twist to the relationship between quantum entanglement and the interior geometry of black holes. We generalize our result to higher spin black holes, and again find a detailed match. We comment on a possible alternative interpretation of our result in terms of boundary entropy.Comment: 15 pages, 3 figures; typos corrected, references adde

    Renyi Entropy and Geometry

    Full text link
    Entanglement entropy in even dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs) contains well-known universal terms arising from the conformal anomaly. Renyi entropies are natural generalizations of the entanglement entropy that are much less understood. Above two spacetime dimensions, the universal terms in the Renyi entropies are unknown for general entangling geometries. We conjecture a new structure in the dependence of the four-dimensional Renyi entropies on the intrinsic and extrinsic geometry of the entangling surface. We provide evidence for this conjecture by direct numerical computations in the free scalar and fermion field theories. The computation involves relating the four-dimensional free massless Renyi entropies across cylindrical entangling surfaces to corresponding three-dimensional massive Renyi entropies across circular entangling surfaces. Our numerical technique also allows us to directly probe other interesting aspects of three-dimensional Renyi entropy, including the massless renormalized Renyi entropy and calculable contributions to the perimeter law.Comment: 16 pages, 3 figures; v2 refs added, minor improvement

    Lost Causes

    Get PDF

    Conformal Bootstrap, Universality and Gravitational Scattering

    Get PDF
    We use the conformal bootstrap equations to study the non-perturbative gravitational scattering between infalling and outgoing particles in the vicinity of a black hole horizon in AdS. We focus on irrational 2D CFTs with large cc and only Virasoro symmetry. The scattering process is described by the matrix element of two light operators (particles) between two heavy states (BTZ black holes). We find that the operator algebra in this regime is (i) universal and identical to that of Liouville CFT, and (ii) takes the form of an exchange algebra, specified by an R-matrix that exactly matches with the scattering amplitude of 2+1 gravity. The R-matrix is given by a quantum 6j-symbol and the scattering phase by the volume of a hyperbolic tetrahedron. We comment on the relevance of our results to scrambling and the holographic reconstruction of the bulk physics near black hole horizons.Comment: 61 pages, 12 figures; some typos corrected and references improve

    Partnerships and understanding between Kazakh pastoralists and golden eagles of the Altai mountains : a multi-species ethnography

    Get PDF
    This thesis is a study of the Kazakh tradition of hunting in partnership with golden eagles in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia. It represents a unique relationship among the spectrum of human-animal interactions – here eagles live both fully independent lives in the ‘wild’ and yet, for a time, are brought into the domestic sphere by Kazakhs and behave, in many ways, as a domesticated animal would. Kazakhs are able to accomplish this through the deep ethno-ornithological knowledge of the lives of eagles and a willingness to see eagles as beings with agency and engage in an intersubjective relationship with them. Kazakh pastoralists rely entirely on animals for their livelihood, and therefore communicate with goats, sheep, horses, camels, yaks and eagles on a daily basis. None of these relationships are of dominance, but rather co-domesticity. The aim of this thesis is to use the lens of cultivating a relationship with an eagle to better examine how human-animal interactions make us who we are, and help us understand the world around us. There are strong parallels in the lives of the eagles and Kazakhs of the Altai Mountains – both migrate with the seasons and utilize landscapes in similar ways. Along with notions of ‘domestic’ and ‘wild’, apprenticeship is a strong theme in this thesis. A Kazakh hunter must apprentice himself to both his eagle and his human mentor. In turn, the eagle becomes an apprentice of sorts as it learns to communicate with humans. Layers of interspecies communication saturate the landscape and challenge the notion of human exceptionalism. When we think about animals this way, like the Kazakhs do, truly special human-animal partnerships can occur

    Multivariate proteomic profiling identifies novel accessory proteins of coated vesicles.

    Get PDF
    Despite recent advances in mass spectrometry, proteomic characterization of transport vesicles remains challenging. Here, we describe a multivariate proteomics approach to analyzing clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) from HeLa cells. siRNA knockdown of coat components and different fractionation protocols were used to obtain modified coated vesicle-enriched fractions, which were compared by stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative mass spectrometry. 10 datasets were combined through principal component analysis into a "profiling" cluster analysis. Overall, 136 CCV-associated proteins were predicted, including 36 new proteins. The method identified >93% of established CCV coat proteins and assigned >91% correctly to intracellular or endocytic CCVs. Furthermore, the profiling analysis extends to less well characterized types of coated vesicles, and we identify and characterize the first AP-4 accessory protein, which we have named tepsin. Finally, our data explain how sequestration of TACC3 in cytosolic clathrin cages causes the severe mitotic defects observed in auxilin-depleted cells. The profiling approach can be adapted to address related cell and systems biological questions

    The fallibility of memory in judicial processes: Lessons from the past and their modern consequences

    Get PDF
    The capability of adult and child witnesses to accurately recollect events from the past and provide reliable testimony has been hotly debated for more than one hundred years (Binet, 1900). Prominent legal cases of the 1980s and 1990s sparked lengthy debates and important research questions surrounding the fallibility and general reliability of memory. But what lessons have we learned, some forty years later, about the role of memory in the judicial system? In this review, we focus on what we now know about the consequences of the fallibility of memory for legal proceedings. We present a brief historical overview of false memories that focuses on three critical forensic areas that changed memory research: Children as eyewitnesses, historic sexual abuse, and eyewitness (mis)identification. We revisit some of the prominent trials of the 1980s and 1990s to not only consider the role false memories have played, but also to see how this has helped us understand memory today. Finally, we consider the way in which the research on memory (true and false) has been successfully integrated into some courtroom procedures

    Practical considerations for measuring the effective reproductive number, Rt.

    Get PDF
    Estimation of the effective reproductive number Rt is important for detecting changes in disease transmission over time. During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, policy makers and public health officials are using Rt to assess the effectiveness of interventions and to inform policy. However, estimation of Rt from available data presents several challenges, with critical implications for the interpretation of the course of the pandemic. The purpose of this document is to summarize these challenges, illustrate them with examples from synthetic data, and, where possible, make recommendations. For near real-time estimation of Rt, we recommend the approach of Cori and colleagues, which uses data from before time t and empirical estimates of the distribution of time between infections. Methods that require data from after time t, such as Wallinga and Teunis, are conceptually and methodologically less suited for near real-time estimation, but may be appropriate for retrospective analyses of how individuals infected at different time points contributed to the spread. We advise caution when using methods derived from the approach of Bettencourt and Ribeiro, as the resulting Rt estimates may be biased if the underlying structural assumptions are not met. Two key challenges common to all approaches are accurate specification of the generation interval and reconstruction of the time series of new infections from observations occurring long after the moment of transmission. Naive approaches for dealing with observation delays, such as subtracting delays sampled from a distribution, can introduce bias. We provide suggestions for how to mitigate this and other technical challenges and highlight open problems in Rt estimation

    Analysis of shared heritability in common disorders of the brain

    Get PDF
    ience, this issue p. eaap8757 Structured Abstract INTRODUCTION Brain disorders may exhibit shared symptoms and substantial epidemiological comorbidity, inciting debate about their etiologic overlap. However, detailed study of phenotypes with different ages of onset, severity, and presentation poses a considerable challenge. Recently developed heritability methods allow us to accurately measure correlation of genome-wide common variant risk between two phenotypes from pools of different individuals and assess how connected they, or at least their genetic risks, are on the genomic level. We used genome-wide association data for 265,218 patients and 784,643 control participants, as well as 17 phenotypes from a total of 1,191,588 individuals, to quantify the degree of overlap for genetic risk factors of 25 common brain disorders. RATIONALE Over the past century, the classification of brain disorders has evolved to reflect the medical and scientific communities' assessments of the presumed root causes of clinical phenomena such as behavioral change, loss of motor function, or alterations of consciousness. Directly observable phenomena (such as the presence of emboli, protein tangles, or unusual electrical activity patterns) generally define and separate neurological disorders from psychiatric disorders. Understanding the genetic underpinnings and categorical distinctions for brain disorders and related phenotypes may inform the search for their biological mechanisms. RESULTS Common variant risk for psychiatric disorders was shown to correlate significantly, especially among attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia. By contrast, neurological disorders appear more distinct from one another and from the psychiatric disorders, except for migraine, which was significantly correlated to ADHD, MDD, and Tourette syndrome. We demonstrate that, in the general population, the personality trait neuroticism is significantly correlated with almost every psychiatric disorder and migraine. We also identify significant genetic sharing between disorders and early life cognitive measures (e.g., years of education and college attainment) in the general population, demonstrating positive correlation with several psychiatric disorders (e.g., anorexia nervosa and bipolar disorder) and negative correlation with several neurological phenotypes (e.g., Alzheimer's disease and ischemic stroke), even though the latter are considered to result from specific processes that occur later in life. Extensive simulations were also performed to inform how statistical power, diagnostic misclassification, and phenotypic heterogeneity influence genetic correlations. CONCLUSION The high degree of genetic correlation among many of the psychiatric disorders adds further evidence that their current clinical boundaries do not reflect distinct underlying pathogenic processes, at least on the genetic level. This suggests a deeply interconnected nature for psychiatric disorders, in contrast to neurological disorders, and underscores the need to refine psychiatric diagnostics. Genetically informed analyses may provide important "scaffolding" to support such restructuring of psychiatric nosology, which likely requires incorporating many levels of information. By contrast, we find limited evidence for widespread common genetic risk sharing among neurological disorders or across neurological and psychiatric disorders. We show that both psychiatric and neurological disorders have robust correlations with cognitive and personality measures. Further study is needed to evaluate whether overlapping genetic contributions to psychiatric pathology may influence treatment choices. Ultimately, such developments may pave the way toward reduced heterogeneity and improved diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders

    Genomic Relationships, Novel Loci, and Pleiotropic Mechanisms across Eight Psychiatric Disorders

    Get PDF
    Genetic influences on psychiatric disorders transcend diagnostic boundaries, suggesting substantial pleiotropy of contributing loci. However, the nature and mechanisms of these pleiotropic effects remain unclear. We performed analyses of 232,964 cases and 494,162 controls from genome-wide studies of anorexia nervosa, attention-deficit/hyper-activity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, and Tourette syndrome. Genetic correlation analyses revealed a meaningful structure within the eight disorders, identifying three groups of inter-related disorders. Meta-analysis across these eight disorders detected 109 loci associated with at least two psychiatric disorders, including 23 loci with pleiotropic effects on four or more disorders and 11 loci with antagonistic effects on multiple disorders. The pleiotropic loci are located within genes that show heightened expression in the brain throughout the lifespan, beginning prenatally in the second trimester, and play prominent roles in neurodevelopmental processes. These findings have important implications for psychiatric nosology, drug development, and risk prediction.Peer reviewe
    corecore