634 research outputs found

    Bounding film drainage in common thin films

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    A review of thin film drainage models is presented in which the predictions of thinning velocities and drainage times are compared to reported values on foam and emulsion films found in the literature. Free standing films with tangentially immobile interfaces and suppressed electrostatic repulsion are considered, such as those studied in capillary cells. The experimental thinning velocities and drainage times of foams and emulsions are shown to be bounded by predictions from the Reynolds and the theoretical MTsR equations. The semi-empirical MTsR and the surface wave equations were the most consistently accurate with all of the films considered. These results are used in an accompanying paper to develop scaling laws that bound the critical film thickness of foam and emulsion films

    Current status specifiers for patients at clinical high risk for psychosis

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    Background: Longitudinal studies of the clinical high risk (CHR) syndrome for psychosis have emphasized the conversion vs non-conversion distinction and thus far have not focused intensively on classification among non-converters. The present study proposes a system for classifying CHR outcomes over time when using the Structured Interview for Psychosis-risk Syndromes and evaluates its validity. Method: The system for classifying CHR outcomes is referred to as current status specifiers, with current meaning over the month prior to the present evaluation and specifiers indicating a set of labels and descriptions of the statuses. Specifiers for four current statuses are described: progression, persistence, partial remission, and full remission. Data from the North American Prodromal Longitudinal Study were employed to test convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of the current status distinctions. Results: Validity analyses partly supported current status distinctions. Social and role functioning were more impaired in progressive and persistent than in remitted patients, suggesting a degree of convergent validity. Agreement between CHR current statuses and current statuses for a different diagnostic construct (DSM-IV Major Depression) was poor, suggesting discriminant validity. The proportion converting to psychosis within a year was significantly higher in cases meeting progression criteria than in those meeting persistence criteria and tended to be higher than in those meeting full remission criteria, consistent with a degree of predictive validity. Discussion: CHR syndrome current status specifiers could offer a potentially valid and useful description of current clinical status among non-converters. Study in additional samples is needed. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V

    Notes on the Third Law of Thermodynamics.I

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    We analyze some aspects of the third law of thermodynamics. We first review both the entropic version (N) and the unattainability version (U) and the relation occurring between them. Then, we heuristically interpret (N) as a continuity boundary condition for thermodynamics at the boundary T=0 of the thermodynamic domain. On a rigorous mathematical footing, we discuss the third law both in Carath\'eodory's approach and in Gibbs' one. Carath\'eodory's approach is fundamental in order to understand the nature of the surface T=0. In fact, in this approach, under suitable mathematical conditions, T=0 appears as a leaf of the foliation of the thermodynamic manifold associated with the non-singular integrable Pfaffian form ÎŽQrev\delta Q_{rev}. Being a leaf, it cannot intersect any other leaf S=S= const. of the foliation. We show that (N) is equivalent to the requirement that T=0 is a leaf. In Gibbs' approach, the peculiar nature of T=0 appears to be less evident because the existence of the entropy is a postulate; nevertheless, it is still possible to conclude that the lowest value of the entropy has to belong to the boundary of the convex set where the function is defined.Comment: 29 pages, 2 figures; RevTex fil

    The small GTPase Rab29 is a common regulator of immune synapse assembly and ciliogenesis

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    Acknowledgements We wish to thank Jorge GalĂĄn, Gregory Pazour, Derek Toomre, Giuliano Callaini, Joel Rosenbaum, Alessandra Boletta and Francesco Blasi for generously providing reagents and for productive discussions, and Sonia Grassini for technical assistance. The work was carried out with the financial support of Telethon (GGP11021) and AIRC.Peer reviewedPostprin

    Negative symptoms and impaired social functioning predict later psychosis in Latino youth at clinical high risk in the North American prodromal longitudinal studies consortium

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    AIM: Examining ethnically related variables in evaluating those at risk for psychosis is critical. This study investigated sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of Latino versus non-Latino clinical high-risk (CHR) subjects and healthy control (HC) subjects in the first North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study. METHODS: Fifty-six Latino CHR subjects were compared to 25 Latino HC and 423 non-Latino CHR subjects across clinical and demographic variables. Thirty-nine of the 56 CHR subjects completed at least one subsequent clinical evaluation over the 2.5-year period with 39% developing a psychotic illness. Characteristics of Latino CHR subjects who later converted to psychosis (‘converters’) were compared to those who did not (‘non-converters’). RESULTS: Latino CHR subjects were younger than non-Latino CHR subjects and had less education than Latino HC subjects and non-Latino CHR counterparts. Latino CHR converters had higher scores than Latino non-converters on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes total negative symptoms that were accounted for by decreased expression of emotion and personal hygiene/social attentiveness subsections. Latino CHR converters scored lower on the global functioning:social scale, indicating worse social functioning than Latino non-converters. CONCLUSION: Based on this sample, Latino CHR subjects may seek treatment earlier and have less education than non-Latino CHR subjects. Deficits in social functioning and impaired personal hygiene/social attentiveness among Latino CHR subjects predicted later psychosis and may represent important areas for future study. Larger sample sizes are needed to more thoroughly investigate the observed ethnic differences and risk factors for psychosis in Latino youth

    Functional development in clinical high risk youth: Prediction of schizophrenia versus other psychotic disorders

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    This study evaluates premorbid social and academic functioning in clinical high-risk individuals as predictors of transition to schizophrenia versus another psychotic disorder. Participants were 54 individuals enrolled in phase one of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study who over two and a half years of follow-up met criteria for schizophrenia/schizophreniform disorder (n=28) or another psychotic disorder (n=26). Social and academic functioning in childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence was assessed at baseline using the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale. Social maladjustment in late adolescence predicted significantly higher odds of transition to schizophrenia versus another psychotic disorder independent of childhood and early adolescent adjustment (OR = 4.02) and conveyed unique risk over academic maladjustment (O R= 5.64). Premorbid academic maladjustment was not associated with psychotic disorder diagnosis. Results support diagnostic specificity of premorbid social dysfunction to schizophrenia in clinical high-risk youth and underscore an important role for social maladjustment in the developmental pathology of schizophrenia and its prediction. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved