422 research outputs found

    Why do New Zealanders Care about Agricultural Emissions?

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    The question of how to effectively address agricultural greenhouse gas emissions is of critical importance for New Zealand and the world. Ensuring that our responses are effective requires us to first consider what we aim to achieve: why do we care about agricultural emissions? This paper responds to this fundamental inquiry, and argues that New Zealanders‟ diverse individual motivations can be grouped under three headings: one, concern about the direct impacts of climate change on New Zealand and the world; two, pressure from others based on their concern about climate change; three, complementary goals. This framework is useful in setting out how our underlying motivations should shape our responses, and highlights the importance of choosing responses that will be robust to future uncertainties.Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use,

    “No Country for Old Men”: a Note on the trans-Tasman Income Divide

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    Although much work has been done analysing the possible causes of the New Zealand-Australian income gap, to date there has been little analysis of the extent to which this gap differs by gender and age. Using New Zealand and Australian employment and census data we examine these differences and find that (1) over the last 25 years the incomes of New Zealand women have declined less rapidly than those of New Zealand men, relative to Australian incomes; (2) this poor relative performance of New Zealand males was felt most by those in middle age; and (3) the stronger relative income growth of New Zealand females appears to be largely driven by increased public sector wage growth, and as such, its long term sustainability is questionable.dynamic optimisation, electricity spot market performance, stochastic fuel availability, storage options, climate change

    Indigenous people’s experience of multiple legal problems and multiple disadvantage - a working paper

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    This paper explores differences in the experience of legal problems by Indigenous status. Abstract: The Legal Australia-Wide (LAW) Survey found that Indigenous people who experience legal problems had an increased likelihood of experiencing multiple legal problems. New analyses using the LAW Survey national dataset show that compared to others, Indigenous people have higher vulnerability to particular types of legal problems, multiple legal problems and multiple substantial legal problems. Certain Indigenous subpopulations were found to experience an even higher number of legal problems and substantial legal problems. Compared to others, Indigenous people were also found to be more disadvantaged according to several indicators of disadvantage. Indigenous respondents were found to have a higher level of multiple disadvantage, and Indigenous background was found to heighten vulnerability to multiple legal problems independent of age, gender and level of disadvantage. Multiple disadvantage was found to have a ‘compounding’ effect on vulnerability to multiple legal problems and multiple substantial legal problems that appears to be stronger for Indigenous people than for others. These findings highlight the need to further consider how legal services can be better tailored to the legal needs of Indigenous people, and particularly those Indigenous subpopulations with heightened vulnerability to multiple legal problems

    Trading efficiency in water quality markets

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    A crucial factor in the success of any water quality trading market is its ability to cost-effectively reallocate nutrient allowances from initial holders to those users who find them most valuable; the market's trading efficiency. We explore causes of and solutions to trading inefficiency by assessing the impact on participant transaction costs and the tradeoffs that occur as a result of policy design decisions. Differing impacts of baseline-credit and cap-and-trade markets, the impact of trading rules and monitoring regimes are discussed in this endeavour. Possible solutions of increased information flows and regulatory certainty are also discussed. We then apply this framework to three existing water quality trading schemes; two from the US, and one from New Zealand. We use this experience to extract general recommendations for policy makers looking to maximise trading efficiency when designing future water quality trading markets.Nutrient trading, trading efficiency, water quality markets, transaction costs, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Environmental Economics and Policy, Health Economics and Policy, International Relations/Trade,

    "No country for old men": A note of the Trans-Tasman Income Divide

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    Although much work has been done analysing the possible causes of the New Zealand- Australian income gap, to date there has been little analysis of the extent to which this gap differs by gender and age. Using New Zealand and Australian employment and census data we examine these differences and find that (1) over the last 25 years the incomes of New Zealand women have declined less rapidly than those of New Zealand men, relative to Australian incomes; (2) this poor relative performance of New Zealand males was felt most by those in middle age; and (3) the stronger relative income growth of New Zealand females appears to be largely driven by increased public sector wage growth, and as such, its long term sustainability is questionable

    Effect of long-term starvation on the survival, recovery, and carbon utilization profiles of a bovine Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolate from New Zealand

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    The ability to maintain a dual lifestyle of colonizing the ruminant gut and surviving in nonhost environments once shed is key to the success of Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a zoonotic pathogen. Both physical and biological conditions encountered by the bacteria are likely to change during the transition between host and nonhost environments. In this study, carbon starvation at suboptimal temperatures in nonhost environments was simulated by starving a New Zealand bovine E. coli O157:H7 isolate in phosphate-buffered saline at 4 and 15°C for 84 days. Recovery of starved cells on media with different nutrient availabilities was monitored under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We found that the New Zealand bovine E. coli O157:H7 isolate was able to maintain membrane integrity and viability over 84 days and that the level of recovery depended on the nutrient level of the recovery medium as well as the starvation temperature. In addition, a significant difference in carbon utilization was observed between starved and nonstarved cells

    Effect of long-term starvation on the survival, recovery, and carbon utilization profiles of a bovine Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolate from New Zealand

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    The ability to maintain a dual lifestyle of colonizing the ruminant gut and surviving in nonhost environments once shed is key to the success of Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a zoonotic pathogen. Both physical and biological conditions encountered by the bacteria are likely to change during the transition between host and nonhost environments. In this study, carbon starvation at suboptimal temperatures in nonhost environments was simulated by starving a New Zealand bovine E. coli O157:H7 isolate in phosphate-buffered saline at 4 and 15°C for 84 days. Recovery of starved cells on media with different nutrient availabilities was monitored under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We found that the New Zealand bovine E. coli O157:H7 isolate was able to maintain membrane integrity and viability over 84 days and that the level of recovery depended on the nutrient level of the recovery medium as well as the starvation temperature. In addition, a significant difference in carbon utilization was observed between starved and nonstarved cells

    Improved Deployment of Marketing Information Systems

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    This paper describes the development of a process map of marketing as an aid to the understanding of the role of IS and its improved deployment in this important domain. Interviews were undertaken with marketing staff in organisations in order to develop the map. A second set of interviews with staff concerned with specific marketing IS developments in these organisations were also undertaken and the applications overlaid on the map in order to test its utility

    Evaluation of use of the Kansas agricultural situation by county agents

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    Call number: LD2668 .T4 1961 M3

    The End of the End of History

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    In this essay I will first examine why the religious right constitutes a significant challenge to liberal, democracies. By the latter I do not mean the ideological sense of liberal, but pluralistic democracies that uphold human rights and values, free and fair elections, and the autonomy of institutions from religious and political interference. I will then make the theoretical distinction between a democratic republic and a sophiacratic "republic", and argue that theocracy resembles the latter more than the former. Finally, I will note that the end of the end of democracy heralds a new "cold war" between fundamentalist religions and liberal democracies. The use of the "war on terror" a phony war that should never have begun, is making converts to the cause of fundamentalist Islam, and squanders tax revenues by the Bush administration heralds the end of the end of history and a new use of Orwellian tactics by the right. Reports of the end of history have been "greatly exaggerated"; the religious right is a serious challenge and even a threat to liberal democracies.En el presente ensayo, examinaré primeramente por qué las posiciones políticas de derecha de base religiosa constituyen un importante problema para las democracias liberales. Con este último término no me refiero al liberalismo como ideología política, sino a las democracias pluralistas que defienden los derechos y valores humanos, los procesos electorales libres y transparentes, y la autonomía de las instituciones con respecto a las injerencias por parte de instancias económicas y religiosas. Seguidamente, plantearé una distinción entre una república democrática y una "república" sofiacrática, arguyendo que la teocracia se asemeja más a la segunda que a la primera. Finalmente, haré notar que el final del final de la democracia anuncia una nueva "guerra fría" entre fundamentalismos religiosos y democracias liberales. El uso de la "guerra contra el terror" � una guerra falaz, que nunca debió haber siquiera comenzado, y que fomenta el aumento del número de partidarios del fundamentalismo islamista, además del despilfarro de los fondos públicos procedentes de los impuestos � por parte de la administración Bush anuncia el final del final de la historia, y el inicio del uso de tácticas dignas de Orwell por parte de la derecha. Las proclamas del final de la historia han sido "enormemente exageradas"; la derecha religiosa constituye un serio problema, e incluso una amenaza, para las democracias liberales
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