555 research outputs found

    Development of a theory-based intervention to increase children's understanding of health

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    The present study examined the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention in increasing 3-to 4-year-olds’ understanding (e.g., classification) and preference for healthy foods and exercise. This study used a pre-test/intervention/post-test design and children were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: theory (i.e., 20 children received the theory-based intervention); non theory (i.e., 20 children received the non theory-based intervention); and control (i.e., 20 children received no intervention). The results showed that children in the theory group performed significantly better on measures for understanding than children in the non theory and control groups. The theory group also performed significantly more accurately on the preference task, specifically on high-fat food and non exercise questions, than children in the non theory and control groups. These results suggest that theory-based interventions are effective in increasing children’s understanding and preferences for healthy behaviors, and could be used to educate children about health at a young age

    'React and Go with it': Interviewing Persons with Alzheimer's Disease about their Friendships

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    This study accessed the firsthand perspectives of persons with Alzheimer's in order to report their friendship patterns with cognitively intact friends. I expected to find a gradual breakdown of respondents' networks and negative processes to characterize their friendships. The initial goal was to interview 15 Caucasian women in the early-stages of Alzheimer's about a friendship with a good friend. It was difficult to recruit the target sample size because of the ambiguities of the diagnostic process combined with the protection of the population. The final sample size was four with the findings supporting the idea that both personalities and previous patterns of relating carry into the disease experience. Alzheimer's disease is not always associated with a friendship network breakdown. Persons with Alzheimer's can still remain engaged in fulfilling friendships following their diagnosis that do not have to be characterized by negative processes. This population can also successfully inform research by participating in interviews. This study provided two outcomes, with the methodological one focusing on how to sample the population and the substantive one examining the originally intended topic of the friendships of persons with Alzheimer's

    Perpetual inventory or stores control

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    Executives are insistent that stores control shall be centered on the principal facts and not lose itself among non-essentials. Thus, one large company charges off when purchased items such as nuts, bolts and screws which in that particular establishment are very minor items of supply. An item which costs ten cents or over is charged when requisitioned. However, even in items of less value than ten cents, adequate record of the quantity on hand is maintained. In accordance with the foregoing, that which will be presented here will be a simple rather than an elaborate stores system

    Depreciation: its treatment in production

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    Depreciation attempts to measure the effect of time and production on physical properties and equipment and to record the results in dollars and cents. This computation can not be exact because the elements affecting depreciation are many and their relative importance difficult to determine. The use and character of property, its maintenance, the quality of installation, and often local conditions variously modify the life of property, while an unexpected industrial advance may suddenly terminate the usefulness of property and completely upset depreciation calculations

    Derivation and validation of cutoffs for clinical use of cell cycle arrest biomarkers

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    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a deadly condition. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-2 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)7 are two recently discovered urinary biomarkers for AKI. We now report on the development, and diagnostic accuracy of two clinical cutoffs for a test using these markers. Methods We derived cutoffs based on sensitivity and specificity for prediction of Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes Stages 2–3 AKI within 12 h using data from a previously published multicenter cohort (Sapphire). Next, we verified these cutoffs in a new study (Opal) enrolling 154 critically ill adults from six sites in the USA. Results One hundred subjects (14%) in Sapphire and 27 (18%) in Opal met the primary end point. The results of the Opal study replicated those of Sapphire. Relative risk (95% CI) in both studies for subjects testing at ≤0.3 versus \u3e0.3–2 were 4.7 (1.5–16) and 4.4 (2.5–8.7), or 12 (4.2–40) and 18 (10–37) for ≤0.3 versus \u3e2. For the 0.3 cutoff, sensitivity was 89% in both studies, and specificity 50 and 53%. For 2.0, sensitivity was 42 and 44%, and specificity 95 and 90%. Conclusions Urinary [TIMP-2]•[IGFBP7] values of 0.3 or greater identify patients at high risk and those \u3e2 at highest risk for AKI and provide new information to support clinical decision-making. Clinical Trials Registration Clintrials.gov # NCT01209169 (Sapphire) and NCT01846884 (Opal)

    TeV Observations of Markarian 501 with the Milagrito Water Cherenkov Detector

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    The Milagrito water Cherenkov detector near Los Alamos, New Mexico, operated as a sky monitor at energies of a few TeV between February 1997 and May 1998 including the period of the strong, long-lasting 1997 flare of Markarian 501. Milagrito served as a test run for the full Milagro detector. An event excess with a significance of 3.7 sigma from Markarian 501 was observed, in agreement with expectations.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figures (figure 2 in color). accepted for publication in ApJ Letter

    Evidence for TeV Emission from GRB 970417a

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    Milagrito, a detector sensitive to very high energy gamma rays, monitored the northern sky from February 1997 through May 1998. With a large field of view and a high duty cycle, this instrument was well suited to perform a search for TeV gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We report on a search made for TeV counterparts to GRBs observed by BATSE. BATSE detected 54 GRBs within the field of view of Milagrito during this period. An excess of events coincident in time and space with one of these bursts, GRB 970417a, was observed by Milagrito. The excess has a chance probability of 2.8×1052.8 \times 10^{-5} of being a fluctuation of the background. The probability for observing an excess at least this large from any of the 54 bursts is 1.5×1031.5 \times 10^{-3}. No significant correlations were detected from the other bursts.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figure

    Cardio-renal syndromes: report from the consensus conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative

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    A consensus conference on cardio-renal syndromes (CRS) was held in Venice Italy, in September 2008 under the auspices of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI). The following topics were matter of discussion after a systematic literature review and the appraisal of the best available evidence: definition/classification system; epidemiology; diagnostic criteria and biomarkers; prevention/protection strategies; management and therapy. The umbrella term CRS was used to identify a disorder of the heart and kidneys whereby acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction in the other organ. Different syndromes were identified and classified into five subtypes. Acute CRS (type 1): acute worsening of heart function (AHF–ACS) leading to kidney injury and/or dysfunction. Chronic cardio-renal syndrome (type 2): chronic abnormalities in heart function (CHF-CHD) leading to kidney injury and/or dysfunction. Acute reno-cardiac syndrome (type 3): acute worsening of kidney function (AKI) leading to heart injury and/or dysfunction. Chronic reno-cardiac syndrome (type 4): chronic kidney disease leading to heart injury, disease, and/or dysfunction. Secondary CRS (type 5): systemic conditions leading to simultaneous injury and/or dysfunction of heart and kidney. Consensus statements concerning epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and management strategies are discussed in the paper for each of the syndromes

    Development and validation of MIX: comprehensive free software for meta-analysis of causal research data

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    BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis has become a well-known method for synthesis of quantitative data from previously conducted research in applied health sciences. So far, meta-analysis has been particularly useful in evaluating and comparing therapies and in assessing causes of disease. Consequently, the number of software packages that can perform meta-analysis has increased over the years. Unfortunately, it can take a substantial amount of time to get acquainted with some of these programs and most contain little or no interactive educational material. We set out to create and validate an easy-to-use and comprehensive meta-analysis package that would be simple enough programming-wise to remain available as a free download. We specifically aimed at students and researchers who are new to meta-analysis, with important parts of the development oriented towards creating internal interactive tutoring tools and designing features that would facilitate usage of the software as a companion to existing books on meta-analysis. RESULTS: We took an unconventional approach and created a program that uses Excel as a calculation and programming platform. The main programming language was Visual Basic, as implemented in Visual Basic 6 and Visual Basic for Applications in Excel 2000 and higher. The development took approximately two years and resulted in the 'MIX' program, which can be downloaded from the program's website free of charge. Next, we set out to validate the MIX output with two major software packages as reference standards, namely STATA (metan, metabias, and metatrim) and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2. Eight meta-analyses that had been published in major journals were used as data sources. All numerical and graphical results from analyses with MIX were identical to their counterparts in STATA and CMA. The MIX program distinguishes itself from most other programs by the extensive graphical output, the click-and-go (Excel) interface, and the educational features. CONCLUSION: The MIX program is a valid tool for performing meta-analysis and may be particularly useful in educational environments. It can be downloaded free of charge via or
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