8,282 research outputs found

    Effect of closing facilities on electroconvulsive therapy use in Glasgow

    Get PDF
    <p>Objectives: To assess the effect of closure of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) centers on ECT use. Electroconvulsive therapy remains a recommended and effective treatment for mental disorders. Declining rates of ECT use in the United Kingdom have been observed over the last 20 years with anecdotal observations that use has declined as the result of centralization of provision. In Glasgow, there have been site closures in the north with no such rationing taking place in the south.</p> <p>Methods: A naturalistic retrospective survey of the number of ECT courses commenced each year in Glasgow, with a comparison made between the north and the south of the city. Data were available from 1996 to 2008.</p> <p>Results: Our analysis showed no change in the mean number of ECT courses commenced in southern AQ2 Glasgow (period 1, 42.25; period 2, 41.83; period 3, 31; F = 1.369; P = 0.298). There was a significant reduction in the mean number of ECT treatments commenced in northern Glasgow (period 1, 91.25; period 2, 51; period 3, 33.33; F = 10.06; P = 0.04).</p> <p>Conclusions: In northern Glasgow, where there have been 2 site closures since 1996, ECT use has declined. This trend was not replicated in the south of the city. This would suggest that the closure of ECT centers does reduce the use of ECT. However, there may be a number of confounding variables that could not be factored into the analysis because of lack of available data.</p&gt

    Hematology as Related to Diving Characteristics of Elaphe obsoleta, Nerodia erythrogaster, Nerodia Fasciata and Nerodia rhombifera

    Get PDF
    The diving capabilities of Nerodia erythrogaster flavigaster and Nerodia fasciata confluens were investigated and the results were compared with similar studies on Nerodia rhombifera rhombifera and Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta (Baeyens et al., 1978). In addition, morphological and hematological parameters contributing to underwater survival were examined. The duration of underwater survival for N. erythrogaster and N. fasciata was approximately one hour with no difference between the species. The lung volumes of the two species were also similar but were significantly less than lung volumes reported for E. obsoleta. There were no significant differences in hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell count or hematocrit between N. rhombifera, N. erythrogaster, N. fasciata, and E. obsoleta. Based on similarities in underwater tolerance, lung morphology and hematology, Nerodia more closely resembles the terrestrial E. obsoleta than those reptiles specifically adapted to an underwater existance

    Quantum Circuit Cosmology: The Expansion of the Universe Since the First Qubit

    Get PDF
    We consider cosmological evolution from the perspective of quantum information. We present a quantum circuit model for the expansion of a comoving region of space, in which initially-unentangled ancilla qubits become entangled as expansion proceeds. We apply this model to the comoving region that now coincides with our Hubble volume, taking the number of entangled degrees of freedom in this region to be proportional to the de Sitter entropy. The quantum circuit model is applicable for at most 140 ee-folds of inflationary and post-inflationary expansion: we argue that no geometric description was possible before the time t1t_1 when our comoving region was one Planck length across, and contained one pair of entangled degrees of freedom. This approach could provide a framework for modeling the initial state of inflationary perturbations.Comment: v2, minor correction

    Demographic profile of clinical research volunteers: Improving the effectiveness of promotional recruitment

    Get PDF
    Background: Successfully recruiting participants for clinical trials is a challenge that crosses all medical disciplines. Slow enrollment to clinical trials delays the completion of clinical research studies. Objectives: This study collected demographic data of current and past clinical trial volunteers. Furthermore, it examined similarities and differences between clinical trial volunteers, which provides deeper understandings of who volunteers are and which may allow for improved education and recruitment of subjects. Methods: 87 adults who had participated in at least one clinical research study were surveyed. Findings: *Healthcare represented the most common career at 27.6%. *93.1% received education beyond high school. *0% met the Investigator’s definition for low socioeconomic status. *4.6% had no healthcare coverage. *54% associate themselves with the Democratic Party. Conclusions: There does not appear to be any strong commonalities among clinical research volunteers and the following demographics: career, education level, household income, religious affiliation, political affiliation, and musical affiliation

    Biodiversity and emerging biogeography of the neutrophilic iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria

    Get PDF
    Members of the neutrophilic iron-oxidizing candidate class Zetaproteobacteria have predominantly been found at sites of microbially mediated iron oxidation in marine environments around the Pacific Ocean. Eighty-four full-length (\u3e1,400 bp) and forty-eight partial-length Zetaproteobacteria small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences from five novel clone libraries, one novel Zetaproteobacteria isolate, and the GenBank database were analyzed to assess the biodiversity of this burgeoning class of the Proteobacteria and to investigate its biogeography between three major sampling regions in the Pacific Ocean: Loihi Seamount, the Southern Mariana Trough, and the Tonga Arc. Sequences were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on a 97% minimum similarity. Of the 28 OTUs detected, 13 were found to be endemic to one of the three main sampling regions, and 2 were ubiquitous throughout the Pacific Ocean. Additionally, two deeply-rooted OTUs were identified that potentially dominate communities of iron-oxidizers originating in the deep subsurface. Spatial autocorrelation analysis and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that geographic distance played a significant role in the distribution of Zetaproteobacteria biodiversity, whereas environmental parameters, such as temperature, pH, or total Fe concentration, did not have a significant effect. These results, detected using the coarse resolution of the SSU rRNA gene, indicate that the Zetaproteobacteria have a strong biogeographic signal

    Charter Remedies and Jurisdiction to Grant Them: The Evolution of Section 24(1) and Section 52(1)

    Get PDF
    The issue addressed in this paper is whether we have effective remedies for breach of Charter protected rights and freedoms, as well as clear jurisdictional guidelines for granting such remedies. The relationship between the judiciary and the other branches of government provides the context for exploring the jurisprudence on remedies and jurisdiction. The cases that establish the foundational principles regarding the interpretation of section 24(1) and section 52(1), and the relationship between these provisions, are examined. The guidelines for granting section 52(1) remedies and for identifying the decision makers that have jurisdiction to do so are explored, as are the guidelines and jurisdiction for granting remedies under section 24(1). The the sis of this paper is that while there have been substantial developments in this area, we do not yet have a cohesive set of principles that will ensure that a person whose Charter rights have been infringed will be granted a just and appropriate remedy in an expeditious manner. There are gaps in the law, particularly for statutory courts and administrative tribunals that have the duty to abide by and apply the Constitution, but not the authority to grant a remedy that will do justice to a claimant. The courts cannot provide a complete solution since the legislatures have exclusive authority to assign the jurisdiction of the courts and tribunals. However, the courts can point out the problem and urge the legislatures to take up the issue in a manner that respects the division of powers among the branches of government

    Planning an Urban Recreation System: A Systematic Approach

    Get PDF
    • …
    corecore