2,335 research outputs found

    Establishing Observational Baselines for Two őī Scuti Variables: V966 Herculis and V1438 Aquilae

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    We have examined the previously understudied őī Scuti stars V966 Herculis and V1438 Aquilae. We find that V966 Her is a stable pulsator with a refined period of 0.1330302 days with a full V amplitude of 0.096 mag. We also find that V966 Her has an average radial velocity of +7.8 km s-1, a full radial velocity amplitude of 7.6 km s-1, and a v sin i = 63.8 km s-1. For V1438 Aql we report a revised Hipparcos period of 0.1612751 days with a full amplitude of 0.056. The average radial velocity is found to be -43 km s-1, with full amplitude of 9.7 km s-1, and a v sin i = 76.7 km s-1. Due to some anomalies seen in V1438 Aql we feel that a much larger photometric and spectroscopic campaign is required to determine the true nature of this star

    A Close-up Examination of Racial Disparities in Infant and Maternal Outcomes in Montgomery County, Ohio

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    Background: Infant and maternal outcomes in Montgomery County, Ohio, are among the worst in the state and rival that of many low-income nations. This study compares maternal and infant outcomes across 3 zip codes in Montgomery County to discern factors that are influencing health outcomes for their residents. The zip codes represent 3 distinct communities with unique racial and socioeconomic makeups. Methods: A cohort of mother-infant dyads (n=5098) who delivered at Miami Valley Hospital and Good Samaritan Hospital from January 1, 2009, to January 1, 2019, was analyzed via retrospective chart review. Maternal health outcome composite score (MCS) and infant health outcome composite score (ICS) from Trotwood, Ohio, (zip code 45426) were compared to those of 2 nearby zip codes (45415 and 45424), which were chosen for their lower infant mortality rates and proximity to Trotwood. Continuous variables were compared by ANOVA followed by post hoc Tukey tests. Categorical variables were compared via chi-square analysis. Results: The MCS and ICS were stratified by zip code and maternal age, race, and BMI. There was a statistically significant difference in MCS for race and BMI across all zip codes, but no statistically significant difference for maternal age. There was no statistically significant difference in ICS across maternal age, race, and BMI. Conclusion: Maternal outcomes for Black women were consistently worse across communities while outcomes for other races varied. Our study shows that maternal outcomes did not correlate with infant outcomes, indicating that interventions focusing on improving maternal outcomes may be inadequate at addressing infant outcomes. Investigations surrounding race-specific interventions in all populations are needed

    Liposomal Bupivacaine Infiltration and Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Versus Standard of Care for Post Caesarean Pain Control: A Retrospective Chart Review

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    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block and wound infiltration with local anesthetics are shown to reduce opiate use and pain scores when compared to controls who received narcotic pain medications. With the current opiate epidemic, finding different ways to control pain without opiates is important,-to prevent unnecessary use of these drugs and reduce the potential for addiction in patients having a Cesarean delivery who often times receive opiate medications on schedule regardless of their reported pain

    Obstetrics Emergency Labor and Delivery Case Simulations with Normal Vaginal Delivery Demonstration: A Hands-on Simulation for Clerkship Students

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    Introduction: Simulation is rarely used for medical student education in the field of obstetrics. This method is an effective model of learning for topics that are encountered in clinical situations and for topics that pose significant risk to patients when an untrained individual is involved. Methods: A 2-hour obstetric delivery simulation session was developed and incorporated into the third-year obstetrics and gynecology clerkship rotation at Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine. Medical students completed self-guided content reviews with resources provided prior to the session. During the session, each medical student conducted a normal vaginal delivery and one of the emergent cases (umbilical cord prolapse, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, shoulder dystocia, and postpartum hemorrhage). During each case the Resident facilitator followed a script which included asking questions using gamification strategies to promote a low-stress learning environment. Critical action checklists were used to ensure students gained a strong understanding of topics. Simulation sessions were conducted both remotely and in-person. The simulation experience was evaluated using surveys and quizzes completed prior to and after participating in the simulation session. Results: Students reported that the simulation experience increased their comfort with emergent obstetric situations, increased their medical knowledge, and was beneficial to their education. Discussion: Simulation is an untapped learning method in obstetrics. We developed simulations for obstetric events to provide medical students with hands-on exposure to important obstetric experiences. This simulation session provides the framework for other medical schools to incorporate these obstetric simulations into their clerkship curriculum

    Integrating an Evidence Based Medicine Module Presentation into the Ob-Gyn Clerkship

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    Introduction: During the preclinical curriculum, students are introduced to EBM principles, however structured application to clinical medicine varies throughout clinical experiences. Application of EBM in a clinical educational environment affords students opportunities to practice required skills. Methods: Students selected a patient case and formulated a question related to diagnosis ortreatment using the PICO framework. Students selected research publications related to the patient case, critically appraised their validity and generalization, and developed a comprehensive presentation involving a case summary and related EBM topics, which were evaluated by a faculty member using a rubric developed for the project. To assess the effectiveness of the curriculum addition, students were administered a survey to rate their knowledge of EBM before and after completing the EBM project. Results: One full academic year of clerkship cohorts (n=103) were surveyed. Regardless of EBM knowledge before the project, comparison of self-reported knowledge increased to above-average level of understanding as a result of the project (mean=4.0, SD=1.07, CI=3.75-4.19). Furthermore, student presentation percentage scores using the rubric showed an above average understanding of EBM (mean=96, SD=4.40). Conclusion: It is important for students to integrate EBM into their practice early in their training. This curriculum addition was effective and could be utilized in other clerkships

    Systematic review of studies generating individual participant data on the efficacy of drugs for treating soil-transmitted helminthiases and the case for data-sharing

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    Preventive chemotherapy and transmission control (PCT) by mass drug administration is the cornerstone of the World Health Organization (WHO)’s policy to control soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm), Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) and hookworm species (Necator americanus and Ancylostama duodenale) which affect over 1 billion people globally. Despite consensus that drug efficacies should be monitored for signs of decline that could jeopardise the effectiveness of PCT, systematic monitoring and evaluation is seldom implemented. Drug trials mostly report aggregate efficacies in groups of participants, but heterogeneities in design complicate classical meta-analyses of these data. Individual participant data (IPD) permit more detailed analysis of drug efficacies, offering increased sensitivity to identify atypical responses potentially caused by emerging drug resistance

    The pd <--> pi+ t reaction around the Delta resonance

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    The pd pi+ t process has been calculated in the energy region around the Delta-resonance with elementary production/absorption mechanisms involving one and two nucleons. The isobar degrees of freedom have been explicitly included in the two-nucleon mechanism via pi-- and rho-exchange diagrams. No free parameters have been employed in the analysis since all the parameters have been fixed in previous studies on the simpler pp pi+ d process. The treatment of the few-nucleon dynamics entailed a Faddeev-based calculation of the reaction, with continuum calculations for the initial p-d state and accurate solutions of the three-nucleon bound-state equation. The integral cross-section was found to be quite sensitive to the NN interaction employed while the angular dependence showed less sensitivity. Approximately a 4% effect was found for the one-body mechanism, for the three-nucleon dynamics in the p-d channel, and for the inclusion of a large, possibly converged, number of three-body partial states, indicating that these different aspects are of comparable importance in the calculation of the spin-averaged observables.Comment: 40 Pages, RevTex, plus 5 PostScript figure

    p-tau Ser356 is associated with Alzheimer's disease pathology and is lowered in brain slice cultures using the NUAK inhibitor WZ4003

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    Tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation is a common feature of many dementia-causing neurodegenerative diseases. Tau can be phosphorylated at up to 85 different sites, and there is increasing interest in whether tau phosphorylation at specific epitopes, by specific kinases, plays an important role in disease progression. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related enzyme NUAK1 has been identified as a potential mediator of tau pathology, whereby NUAK1-mediated phosphorylation of tau at Ser356 prevents the degradation of tau by the proteasome, further exacerbating tau hyperphosphorylation and accumulation. This study provides a detailed characterisation of the association of p-tau Ser356 with progression of Alzheimer's disease pathology, identifying a Braak stage-dependent increase in p-tau Ser356 protein levels and an almost ubiquitous presence in neurofibrillary tangles. We also demonstrate, using sub-diffraction-limit resolution array tomography imaging, that p-tau Ser356 co-localises with synapses in AD postmortem brain tissue, increasing evidence that this form of tau may play important roles in AD progression. To assess the potential impacts of pharmacological NUAK inhibition in an ex vivo system that retains multiple cell types and brain-relevant neuronal architecture, we treated postnatal mouse organotypic brain slice cultures from wildtype or APP/PS1 littermates with the commercially available NUAK1/2 inhibitor WZ4003. Whilst there were no genotype-specific effects, we found that WZ4003 results in a culture-phase-dependent loss of total tau and p-tau Ser356, which corresponds with a reduction in neuronal and synaptic proteins. By contrast, application of WZ4003 to live human brain slice cultures results in a specific lowering of p-tau Ser356, alongside increased neuronal tubulin protein. This work identifies differential responses of postnatal mouse organotypic brain slice cultures and adult human brain slice cultures to NUAK1 inhibition that will be important to consider in future work developing tau-targeting therapeutics for human disease.</p

    Community Preferences for the Allocation &Donation of Organs - The PAraDOx Study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Transplantation is the treatment of choice for people with severe organ failure. However, demand substantially exceeds supply of suitable organs; consequently many people wait months, or years to receive an organ. Reasons for the chronic shortage of deceased organ donations are unclear; there appears to be no lack of 'in principle' public support for organ donation.</p> <p>Methods/Design</p> <p>The PAraDOx Study examines community preferences for organ donation policy in Australia. The aims are to 1) determine which factors influence decisions by individuals to offer their organs for donation and 2) determine the criteria by which the community deems the allocation of donor organs to be fair and equitable. Qualitative and quantitative methods will be used to assess community preferences for organ donation and allocation.</p> <p>Focus group participants from the general community, aged between 18-80, will be purposively sampled to ensure a variety of cultural backgrounds and views on organ donation. Each focus group will include a ranking exercise using a modified nominal group technique. Focus groups of organ recipients, their families, and individuals on a transplant waiting list will also be conducted.</p> <p>Using the qualitative work, a discrete choice study will be designed to quantitatively assess community preferences. Discrete choice methods are based on the premise that goods and services can be described in terms of a number of separate attributes. Respondents are presented with a series of choices where levels of attributes are varied, and a mathematical function is estimated to describe numerically the value respondents attach to different options. Two community surveys will be conducted in approximately 1000 respondents each to assess community preferences for organ donation and allocation. A mixed logit model will be used; model results will be expressed as parameter estimates (ő≤) and the odds of choosing one option over an alternative. Trade-offs between attributes will also be calculated.</p> <p>Discussion</p> <p>By providing a better understanding of current community preferences in relation to organ donation and allocation, the PAraDOx study will highlight options for firstly, increasing the rate of organ donation and secondly, allow for more transparent and equitable policies in relation to organ allocation.</p
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