1,466 research outputs found

    Electronic structure calculations and molecular dynamics simulations with linear system-size scaling

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    We present a method for total energy minimizations and molecular dynamics simulations based either on tight-binding or on Kohn-Sham hamiltonians. The method leads to an algorithm whose computational cost scales linearly with the system size. The key features of our approach are (i) an orbital formulation with single particle wavefunctions constrained to be localized in given regions of space, and (ii) an energy functional which does not require either explicit orthogonalization of the electronic orbitals, or inversion of an overlap matrix. The foundations and accuracy of the approach and the performances of the algorithm are discussed, and illustrated with several numerical examples including Kohn-Sham hamiltonians. In particular we present calculations with tight-binding hamiltonians for diamond, graphite, a carbon linear chain and liquid carbon at low pressure. Even for a complex case such as liquid carbon -- a disordered metallic system with differently coordinated atoms -- the agreement between standard diagonalization schemes and our approach is very good. Our results establish the accuracy and reliability of the method for a wide class of systems and show that tight binding molecular dynamics simulations with a few thousand atoms are feasible on small workstations

    Electronic structure of heavily-doped graphene: the role of foreign atom states

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    Using density functional theory calculations we investigate the electronic structure of graphene doped by deposition of foreign atoms. We demonstrate that, as the charge transfer to the graphene layer increases, the band structure of the pristine graphene sheet is substantially affected. This is particularly relevant when Ca atoms are deposed on graphene at CaC6_{6} stoichiometry. Similarly to what happens in superconducting graphite intercalated compounds, a Ca bands occurs at the Fermi level. Its hybridization with the C states generates a strong non-linearity in one of the π∗\pi^{*} bands below the Fermi level, at energies comparable to the graphene E2g_{2g} phonon frequency. This strong non-linearity, and not manybody effects as previously proposed, explains the large and anisotropic values of the apparent electron-phonon coupling measured in angular resolved photoemission.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, see also M. Calandra and F. Mauri,arXiv:0707.146

    Possibility of superconductivity in graphite intercalated with alkaline earths investigated with density functional theory

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    Using density functional theory we investigate the occurrence of superconductivity in AC6_6 with A=Mg,Ca,Sr,Ba. We predict that at zero pressure, Ba and Sr should be superconducting with critical temperatures (Tc_c) 0.2 K and 3.0 K, respectively. We study the pressure dependence of Tc_c assuming the same symmetry for the crystal structures at zero and finite pressures. We find that the SrC6_6 and BaC6_6 critical temperatures should be substantially enhanced by pressure. On the contrary, for CaC6_6 we find that in the 0 to 5 GPa region, Tc_c weakly increases with pressure. The increase is much smaller than what shown in several recent experiments. Thus we suggest that in CaC6_6 a continous phase transformation, such as an increase in staging, occurs at finite pressure. Finally we argue that, although MgC6_6 is unstable, the synthesis of intercalated systems of the kind Mgx_xCa1−x_{1-x}Cy_y could lead to higher critical temperatures.Comment: 9 page

    Charge density wave and superconducting dome in TiSe2 from electron-phonon interaction

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    At low temperature TiSe2 undergoes a charge density wave instability. Superconductivity is stabilized either by pressure or by Cu intercalation. We show that the pressure phase diagram of TiSe2 is well described by first-principles calculations. At pressures smaller than 4 GPa charge density wave ordering occurs, in agreement with experiments. At larger pressures the disappearing of the charge density wave is due to a stiffening of the short-range force-constants and not to the variation of nesting with pressure. Finally we show that the behavior of Tc as a function of pressure is entirely determined by the electron-phonon interaction without need of invoking excitonic mechanisms. Our work demonstrates that phase-diagrams with competing orders and a superconducting dome are also obtained in the framework of the electron-phonon interaction.Comment: 4 pages, 7 picture

    Superconductivity in C6Ca

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    Using density functional theory we demonstrate that superconductivity in C6Ca is due to a phonon-mediated mechanism with electron-phonon coupling 0.83 and phonon-frequency logarithmic-average 24.7 meV. The calculated isotope exponents are 0.24 for Ca and 0.26 for C. Superconductivity is mostly due C vibrations perpendicular and Ca vibrations parallel to the graphite layers. Since the electron-phonon couplings of these modes are activated by the presence of an intercalant Fermi surface, the occurrence of superconductivity in graphite intercalated compounds requires a non complete ionization of the intercalant.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

    First principles theory of the EPR g-tensor in solids: defects in quartz

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    A theory for the reliable prediction of the EPR g-tensor for paramagnetic defects in solids is presented. It is based on density functional theory and on the gauge including projector augmented wave (GIPAW) approach to the calculation of all-electron magnetic response. The method is validated by comparison with existing quantum chemical and experimental data for a selection of diatomic radicals. We thenperform the first prediction of EPR g{\rm g} -tensors in the solid state and find the results to be in excellent agreement with experiment for the E1′E'_1 and substitutional P defect centers in quartz.Comment: 5 pages, 4 table

    High-TcT_c superconductivity in weakly electron-doped HfNCl

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    We investigate the magnetic and superconducting properties in electron-doped Lix_xHfNCl. HfNCl is a band insulator that undergoes an insulator to superconductor transition upon doping at x≈0.13x\approx0.13. The persistence of the insulating state for x<0.13x<0.13 is due to an Anderson transition probably related to Li disorder. In the metallic and superconducting phase, Lix_xHfNCl is a prototype two-dimensional two-valley electron gas with parabolic bands. By performing a model random phase approximation approach as well as first-principles range-separated Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06) calculations, we find that the spin susceptibility χs\chi_s is strongly enhanced in the low doping regime by the electron-electron interaction. Furthermore, in the low doping limit, the exchange interaction renormalizes the intervalley electron-phonon coupling and results in a strong increase of the superconducting critical temperature for x<0.15x<0.15. On the contrary, for x>0.15x>0.15, TcT_c is approximately constant, in agreement with experiments. At x=0.055x=0.055 we found that TcT_c can be as large as 40 K, suggesting that the synthesis of cleaner samples of Lix_xHfNCl could remove the Anderson insulating state competing with superconductivity and generate a high-TcT_c superconductor.Comment: 8 pages, 6 figure

    Zener tunneling in the electrical transport of quasi-metallic carbon nanotubes

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    We study theoretically the impact of Zener tunneling on the charge-transport properties of quasi-metallic (Qm) carbon nanotubes (characterized by forbidden band gaps of few tens of meV). We also analyze the interplay between Zener tunneling and elastic scattering on defects. To this purpose we use a model based on the master equation for the density matrix, that takes into account the inter-band Zener transitions induced by the electric field (a quantum mechanical effect), the electron-defect scattering and the electron-phonon scattering. In presence of Zener tunnelling the Qm tubes support an electrical current even when the Fermi energy lies in the forbidden band gap. In absence of elastic scattering (in high quality samples), the small size of the band gap of Qm tubes enables Zener tunnelling for realistic values of the the electric field (above ∼\sim 1 V/\mu m). The presence of a strong elastic scattering (in low quality samples) further decreases the values of the field required to observe Zener tunnelling. Indeed, for elastic-scattering lengths of the order of 50 nm, Zener tunnelling affects the current/voltage characteristic already in the linear regime. In other words, in quasi-metallic tubes, Zener tunneling is made more visible by defects.Comment: 10 pages, 8 figure

    Anharmonic phonon frequency shift in MgB2

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    We compute the anharmonic shift of the phonon frequencies in MgB2, using density functional theory. We explicitly take into account the scattering between different phonon modes at different q-points in the Brillouin zone. The shift of the E2g mode at the Gamma point is +5 % of the harmonic frequency. This result comes from the cancellation between the contributions of the four- and three-phonon scattering, respectively +10 % and -5 %. A similar shift is predicted at the A point, in agreement with inelastic X-ray scattering phonon-dispersion measurements. A smaller shift is observed at the M point.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figur
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