151 research outputs found

    Analytical approximation of the exterior gravitational field of rotating neutron stars

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    It is known that B\"acklund transformations can be used to generate stationary axisymmetric solutions of Einstein's vacuum field equations with any number of constants. We will use this class of exact solutions to describe the exterior vacuum region of numerically calculated neutron stars. Therefore we study how an Ernst potential given on the rotation axis and containing an arbitrary number of constants can be used to determine the metric everywhere. Then we review two methods to determine those constants from a numerically calculated solution. Finally, we compare the metric and physical properties of our analytic solution with the numerical data and find excellent agreement even for a small number of parameters.Comment: 9 pages, 10 figures, 3 table

    Enzyme-functionalized biomimetic apatites: concept and perspectives in view of innovative medical approaches

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    Biomimetic nanocrystalline calcium-deficient apatite compounds are particularly attractive for the setup of bioactive bone-repair scaffolds due to their high similarity to bone mineral in terms of chemical composition, structural and substructural features. As such, along with the increasingly appealing development of moderate temperature engineered routes for sample processing, they have widened the armamentarium of orthopedic and maxillofacial surgeons in the field of bone tissue engineering. This was made possible by exploiting the exceptional surface reactivity of biomimetic apatite nanocrystals, capable of easily exchanging ions or adsorbing (bio)molecules, thus leading to highly-versatile drug delivery systems. In this contribution we focus on the preparation of hybrid materials combining biomimetic nanocrystalline apatites and enzymes (lysozyme and subtilisin). This paper reports physico-chemical data as well as cytotoxicity evaluations towards Cal-72 osteoblast-like cells and finally antimicrobial assessments towards selected strains of interest in bone surgery. Biomimetic apatite/enzyme hybrids could be prepared in varying buffers. They were found to be non-cytotoxic toward osteoblastic cells and the enzymes retained their biological activity (e.g. bond cleavage or antibacterial properties) despite the immobilization and drying processes. Release properties were also examined. Beyond these illustrative examples, the concept of biomimetic apatites functionalized with enzymes is thus shown to be useable in practice, e.g. for antimicrobial purposes, thus widening possible therapeutic perspectives

    Collapse in the nonlocal nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation

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    We discuss spatial dynamics and collapse scenarios of localized waves governed by the nonlinear Schr\"{o}dinger equation with nonlocal nonlinearity. Firstly, we prove that for arbitrary nonsingular attractive nonlocal nonlinear interaction in arbitrary dimension collapse does not occur. Then we study in detail the effect of singular nonlocal kernels in arbitrary dimension using both, Lyapunoff's method and virial identities. We find that for for a one-dimensional case, i.e. for n=1n=1, collapse cannot happen for nonlocal nonlinearity. On the other hand, for spatial dimension n≥2n\geq2 and singular kernel ∼1/rα\sim 1/r^\alpha, no collapse takes place if α<2\alpha<2, whereas collapse is possible if α≥2\alpha\ge2. Self-similar solutions allow us to find an expression for the critical distance (or time) at which collapse should occur in the particular case of ∼1/r2\sim 1/r^2 kernels. Moreover, different evolution scenarios for the three dimensional physically relevant case of Bose Einstein condensate are studied numerically for both, the ground state and a higher order toroidal state with and without an additional local repulsive nonlinear interaction. In particular, we show that presence of an additional local repulsive term can prevent collapse in those cases

    Technical Note: Intercomparison of ILAS-II version 2 and 1.4 trace species with MIPAS-B measurements

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    The Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS)-II sensor aboard the Japanese ADEOS-II satellite was launched into its sun-synchronous orbit on 14 December 2002 and performed solar occultation measurements of trace species, aerosols, temperature, and pressure in the polar stratosphere until 25 October 2003. Vertical trace gas profiles obtained with the balloon version of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS-B) provide one of the sparse data sets for validating ILAS-II version 2 and 1.4 data. The MIPAS-B limb emission spectra were collected on 20 March 2003 over Kiruna (Sweden, 68&amp;deg; N) at virtually the same location that has been sounded by ILAS-II about 5.5 h prior to the sampling of MIPAS-B. The intercomparison of the new ILAS-II version 2 (Northern Hemispheric sunrise) data to MIPAS-B vertical trace gas profiles shows a good to excellent agreement within the combined error limits for the species O&lt;sub&gt;3&lt;/sub&gt;, N&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;O, CH&lt;sub&gt;4&lt;/sub&gt;, H&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;O (above 21 km), HNO&lt;sub&gt;3&lt;/sub&gt;, ClONO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;, and CFC-11 (CCl&lt;sub&gt;3&lt;/sub&gt;F) in the compared altitude range between 16 and 31 km such that these data appear to be very useful for scientific analysis. With regard to the previous version 1.4 ILAS-II data, significant improvements in the consistency with MIPAS-B are obvious especially for the species CH&lt;sub&gt;4&lt;/sub&gt; and H&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;O, but also for O&lt;sub&gt;3&lt;/sub&gt;, HNO&lt;sub&gt;3&lt;/sub&gt;, ClONO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;, NO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;, and N&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;O&lt;sub&gt;5&lt;/sub&gt;. However, comparing gases like NO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;, N&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;O&lt;sub&gt;5&lt;/sub&gt;, and CFC-12 (CCl&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;F&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;) exhibits only poor agreement with MIPAS-B such that these species cannot be assumed to be validated at the present time

    HCl and ClO in activated Arctic air; first retrieved vertical profiles from TELIS submillimetre limb spectra

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    The first profile retrieval results of the Terahertz and submillimeter Limb Sounder (TELIS) balloon instrument are presented. The spectra are recorded during a 13-h balloon flight on 24 January 2010 from Kiruna, Sweden. The TELIS instrument was mounted on the MIPAS-B2 gondola and shared this platform with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) and the mini- Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (mini-DOAS) instruments. The flight took place within the Arctic vortex at an altitude of ≈34 km in chlorine activated air, and both active (ClO) and inactive chlorine (HCl) were measured over an altitude range of respectively ≈16–32 km and ≈10– 32 km. In this altitude range, the increase of ClO concentration levels during sunrise has been recorded with a temporal resolution of one minute. During the daytime equilibrium, a maximum ClO level of 2.1±0.3 ppbv has been observed at an altitude of 23.5 km. This equilibrium profile is validated against the ClO profile by the satellite instrument Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard EOS Aura. HCl profiles have been determined from two different isotopes – H35Cl and H37Cl – and are also validated againstMLS. The precision of all profiles is well below 0.01 ppbv and the overall accuracy is therefore governed by systematic effects. The total uncertainty of these effects is estimated to be maximal 0.3 ppbv for ClO around its peak value at 23.5 km during the daytime equilibrium, and for HCl it ranges from 0.05 to 0.4 ppbv, depending on altitude. In both cases the main uncertainty stems from a largely unknown non-linear response in the detector

    CCl 4 distribution derived from MIPAS ESA v7 data: intercomparisons, trend, and lifetime estimation

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    Abstract. Atmospheric emissions of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are regulated by the Montreal Protocol due to its role as a strong ozone-depleting substance. The molecule has been the subject of recent increased interest as a consequence of the so-called mystery of CCl4, the discrepancy between atmospheric observations and reported production and consumption. Surface measurements of CCl4 atmospheric concentrations have declined at a rate almost 3 times lower than its lifetime-limited rate, suggesting persistent atmospheric emissions despite the ban. In this paper, we study CCl4 vertical and zonal distributions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (including the photolytic loss region, 70–20 hPa), its trend, and its stratospheric lifetime using measurements from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), which operated onboard the ENVISAT satellite from 2002 to 2012. Specifically, we use the MIPAS data product generated with Version 7 of the Level 2 algorithm operated by the European Space Agency.The CCl4 zonal means show features typical of long-lived species of anthropogenic origin that are destroyed primarily in the stratosphere, with larger quantities in the troposphere and a monotonic decrease with increasing altitude in the stratosphere. MIPAS CCl4 measurements have been compared with independent measurements from other satellite and balloon-borne remote sounders, showing a good agreement between the different datasets.CCl4 trends are calculated as a function of both latitude and altitude. Negative trends of about −10 to −15 pptv decade−1 (−10 to −30 % decade−1) are found at all latitudes in the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere region, apart from a region in the southern midlatitudes between 50 and 10 hPa where the trend is positive with values around 5–10 pptv decade−1 (15–20 % decade−1). At the lowest altitudes sounded by MIPAS, we find trends consistent with those determined on the basis of long-term ground-based measurements (−10 to −13 pptv decade−1). For higher altitudes, the trend shows a pronounced asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, and the magnitude of the decline rate increases with altitude. We use a simplified model assuming tracer–tracer linear correlations to determine CCl4 lifetime in the lower stratosphere. The calculation provides a global average lifetime of 47 (39–61) years, considering CFC-11 as the reference tracer. This value is consistent with the most recent literature result of 44 (36–58) years

    Validation and data characteristics of methane and nitrous oxide profiles observed by MIPAS and processed with Version 4.61 algorithm

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    The ENVISAT validation programme for the atmospheric instruments MIPAS, SCIAMACHY and GOMOS is based on a number of balloon-borne, aircraft, satellite and ground-based correlative measurements. In particular the activities of validation scientists were coordinated by ESA within the ENVISAT Stratospheric Aircraft and Balloon Campaign or ESABC. As part of a series of similar papers on other species [this issue] and in parallel to the contribution of the individual validation teams, the present paper provides a synthesis of comparisons performed between MIPAS CH4 and N2O profiles produced by the current ESA operational software (Instrument Processing Facility version 4.61 or IPF v4.61, full resolution MIPAS data covering the period 9 July 2002 to 26 March 2004) and correlative measurements obtained from balloon and aircraft experiments as well as from satellite sensors or from ground-based instruments. In the middle stratosphere, no significant bias is observed between MIPAS and correlative measurements, and MIPAS is providing a very consistent and global picture of the distribution of CH4 and N2O in this region. In average, the MIPAS CH4 values show a small positive bias in the lower stratosphere of about 5%. A similar situation is observed for N2O with a positive bias of 4%. In the lower stratosphere/upper troposphere (UT/LS) the individual used MIPAS data version 4.61 still exhibits some unphysical oscillations in individual CH4 and N2O profiles caused by the processing algorithm (with almost no regularization). Taking these problems into account, the MIPAS CH4 and N2O profiles are behaving as expected from the internal error estimation of IPF v4.61 and the estimated errors of the correlative measurements

    First remote sensing measurements of ClOOCl along with ClO and ClONO<sub>2</sub> in activated and deactivated Arctic vortex conditions using new ClOOCl IR absorption cross sections

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    Active chlorine species play a dominant role in the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone in the polar vortices during the late winter and early spring seasons. Recently, the correct understanding of the ClO dimer cycle was challenged by the release of new laboratory absorption cross sections (Pope et al., 2007) yielding significant model underestimates of observed ClO and ozone loss (von Hobe et al., 2007). Under this aspect, nocturnal Arctic stratospheric limb emission measurements carried out by the balloon version of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS-B) from Kiruna (Sweden) on 11 January 2001 and 20/21 March 2003 have been reanalyzed with regard to the chlorine reservoir species ClONO2 and the active species, ClO and ClOOCl (Cl2O2). New laboratory measurements of IR absorption cross sections of ClOOCl for various temperatures and pressures allowed for the first time the retrieval of ClOOCl mixing ratios from remote sensing measurements. High values of active chlorine (ClOx) of roughly 2.3 ppbv at 20 km were observed by MIPAS-B in the cold mid-winter Arctic vortex on 11 January 2001. While nighttime ClOOCl shows enhanced values of nearly 1.1 ppbv at 20 km, ClONO2 mixing ratios are less than 0.1 ppbv at this altitude. In contrast, high ClONO2 mixing ratios of nearly 2.4 ppbv at 20 km have been observed in the late winter Arctic vortex on 20 March 2003. No significant ClOx amounts are detectable on this date since most of the active chlorine has already recovered to its main reservoir species ClONO2. The observed values of ClOx and ClONO2 are in line with the established polar chlorine chemistry. The thermal equilibrium constants between the dimer formation and its dissociation, as derived from the balloon measurements, are on the lower side of reported data and in good agreement with values recommended by von Hobe et al. (2007). Calculations with the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry model (EMAC) using established kinetics show similar chlorine activation and deactivation, compared to the measurements in January 2001 and March 2003, respectively
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