4,516 research outputs found

    Bibliometrics, Stylized Facts and the Way Ahead: How to Build Good Social Simulation Models of Science?

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    This paper discusses how stylized facts derived from bibliometric studies can be used to build social simulation models of science. Based on a list of six stylized facts of science it illustrates how they can be brought into play to consolidate and direct research. Moreover, it discusses challenges such a stylized facts based approach of modeling science has to solve.Bibliometrics, Stylized Facts, Methodology, Model Comparison, Validation

    Probing spatial homogeneity with LTB models: a detailed discussion

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    Do current observational data confirm the assumptions of the cosmological principle, or is there statistical evidence for deviations from spatial homogeneity on large scales? To address these questions, we developed a flexible framework based on spherically symmetric, but radially inhomogeneous Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) models with synchronous Big Bang. We expanded the (local) matter density profile in terms of flexible interpolation schemes and orthonormal polynomials. A Monte Carlo technique in combination with recent observational data was used to systematically vary the shape of these profiles. In the first part of this article, we reconsider giant LTB voids without dark energy to investigate whether extremely fine-tuned mass profiles can reconcile these models with current data. While the local Hubble rate and supernovae can easily be fitted without dark energy, however, model-independent constraints from the Planck 2013 data require an unrealistically low local Hubble rate, which is strongly inconsistent with the observed value; this result agrees well with previous studies. In the second part, we explain why it seems natural to extend our framework by a non-zero cosmological constant, which then allows us to perform general tests of the cosmological principle. Moreover, these extended models facilitate explorating whether fluctuations in the local matter density profile might potentially alleviate the tension between local and global measurements of the Hubble rate, as derived from Cepheid-calibrated type Ia supernovae and CMB experiments, respectively. We show that current data provide no evidence for deviations from spatial homogeneity on large scales. More accurate constraints are required to ultimately confirm the validity of the cosmological principle, however.Comment: 18 pages, 12 figures, 2 tables; accepted for publication in A&

    Long Range Effects in Gravity Theories with Vainshtein Screening

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    In this paper we study long range modifications of gravity in the consistent framework of bigravity, which introduces a second massive spin-2 field and allows to continuously interpolate between the regime of General Relativity (mediated by a massless spin-2 field) and massive gravity (mediated by a massive spin-2 field). In particular we derive for the first time the equations for light deflection in this framework and study the effect on the lensing potential of galaxy clusters. By comparison of kinematic and lensing mass reconstructions, stringent bounds can be set on the parameter space of the new spin-2 fields. Furthermore, we investigate galactic rotation curves and the effect on the observable dark matter abundance within this framework.Comment: 32 pages, 9 figures; v2: minor changes to the body of the text; improved motivation of the framework and discussion of bullet cluster section; updated Fig. 9; content matches published versio
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