577 research outputs found

    Benefits and Drawbacks of Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) for Nuclear Safeguards ‚Äď An Overview

    Get PDF
    Nuclear safeguards are technical measures used to detect the diversion of nuclear material and technologies from their peaceful use. A key trait of safeguards is represented by measurements, which allow operators and inspectors to verify the nuclear activities and the amount of nuclear material declared by the States. In particular, an important class of measurements are Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) techniques, which allow one to characterize samples while preserving their physical integrity. NDA represents a rapid and effective method for measurements of nuclear materials in a variety of situations (from process lines to finished products, scrap and waste materials), with the possibility to perform on-site measurements, reducing radioactive waste production and offering wide margins for automatization and remote operation. However, there are situations where the use of NDA is not recommended or possible and one has to rely on Destructive Assay (DA) (i.e., techniques which alter the integrity of the item analysed). This happens, for example, in environmental sampling, when dealing with highly diluted nuclear materials, or when the radiation emitted by the sample is weakly penetrating. In conclusion, the integrated use of different NDA and DA techniques is the best possible solution for measurements in the frame of nuclear safeguards

    Requirements and modelling of fast particle injection in RFX-mod tokamak plasmas

    Get PDF
    The planned upgrade of the RFX-mod device is a good opportunity to widen the operational space of the machine, in both RFP and tokamak configurations. Installation of a power neutral beam injector is also envisaged and a NB system compatible with RFX-mod, formerly installed in TPE-RX, is already available on site. In this work, the METIS simulator is used to study the feasibility of TPE-RX injector integration in RFX-mod circular tokamak plasmas. METIS code allows the simulation of a full tokamak discharge, with the addition of the neutral beam injection (NBI) which, in METIS, is described by a decay equation applied in a simplified geometry and an analytical solution of the Fokker\u2013Planck equation. In this work, RFX-mod scenarios with NBI have been studied, with careful attention to the beam absorption and plasma response to the additional heating

    Digital twins for land-based aquaculture: A case study for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Get PDF
    The virtual, digital counterpart of a physical object, referred as digital twin, derives from the Internet of Things (IoT), and involves real-time acquisition and processing of large data sets. A fully implemented system ultimately enables real-time and remote management, as well as the reproduction of real and forecasted scenarios. Under the emerging framework of Precision Fish Farming, which brings control-engineering principles to fish production, we set up digital twin prototypes for land-based finfish farms. The digital twin is aimed at supporting producers in optimizing feeding practices, oxygen supply and fish population management with respect to 1) fish growth performances; 2) fish welfare, and 3) environmental loads. It relies on integrated mathematical models which are fed with data from in-situ sensors and from external sources, and simulate several dynamic processes, allowing the estimation of key parameters describing the ambient environment and the fishes. A conceptual application targeted at rearing cycles of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in an operational in-land aquafarm in Italy is presented. The digital twin takes into account the disparate levels of automation and control that are found within this farm, and considerations are made on preferential directions for future developments. In spite of its potential, and not only in the aquaculture sector, the development of digital twins is still at its early stage. Furthermore, Precision Fish Farming applications in land-based systems as well as targeted at rainbow trout are novel developments

    Microalgae Cultivation on Anaerobic Digestate of Municipal Wastewater, Sewage Sludge and Agro-Waste

    Get PDF
    Microalgae are fast-growing photosynthetic organisms which have the potential to be exploited as an alternative source of liquid fuels to meet growing global energy demand. The cultivation of microalgae, however, still needs to be improved in order to reduce the cost of the biomass produced. Among the major costs encountered for algal cultivation are the costs for nutrients such as CO2, nitrogen and phosphorous. In this work, therefore, different microalgal strains were cultivated using as nutrient sources three different anaerobic digestates deriving from municipal wastewater, sewage sludge or agro-waste treatment plants. In particular, anaerobic digestates deriving from agro-waste or sewage sludge treatment induced a more than 300% increase in lipid production per volume in Chlorella vulgaris cultures grown in a closed photobioreactor, and a strong increase in carotenoid accumulation in different microalgae species. Conversely, a digestate originating from a pilot scale anaerobic upflow sludge blanket (UASB) was used to increase biomass production when added to an artificial nutrient-supplemented medium. The results herein demonstrate the possibility of improving biomass accumulation or lipid production using different anaerobic digestates. \ua9 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland

    The role of environment in the morphological transformation of galaxies in 9 intermediate redshift clusters

    Full text link
    [abridged] We analyze a sample of 9 massive clusters at 0.4<z<0.6 observed with MegaCam in 4 photometric bands (g,r,i,z) from the core to a radius of 5 Mpc (~4000 galaxies). Galaxy cluster candidates are selected using photometric redshifts computed with HyperZ. Morphologies are estimated with galSVM in two broad morphological types (early-type and late-type). We examine the morphological composition of the red-sequence and the blue-cloud and study the relations between galaxies and their environment through the morphology-density relations (T-Sigma) and the morphology-radius relation (T-R) in a mass limited sample (log(M/Msol)>9.5). We find that the red sequence is already in place at z~0.5 and it is mainly composed of very massive (log(M/Msol)>11.3) early-type galaxies. These massive galaxies seem to be already formed when they enter the cluster, probably in infalling groups, since the fraction remains constant with the cluster radius. Their presence in the cluster center could be explained by a segregation effect reflecting an early assembly history. Any evolution that takes place in the galaxy cluster population occurs therefore at lower masses (10.3<log(M/Msol)<11.3). For these galaxies, the evolution, is mainly driven by galaxy-galaxy interactions in the outskirts as revealed by the T-Sigma relation. Finally, the majority of less massive galaxies (9.5<log(M/Msol)<10.3) are late-type galaxies at all locations, suggesting that they have not started the morphological transformation yet even if this low mass bin might be affected by incompleteness.Comment: A&A in pres

    A new measurement of the evolving near-infrared galaxy luminosity function out to z~4: a continuing challenge to theoretical models of galaxy formation

    Full text link
    We present the most accurate measurement to date of cosmological evolution of the near-infrared galaxy luminosity function, from the local Universe out to z~4. The analysis is based on a large and highly complete sample of galaxies selected from the first data release of the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey. Exploiting a master catalogue of K- and z-band selected galaxies over an area of 0.7 square degrees, we analyse a sample of ~50,000 galaxies, all with reliable photometry in 16-bands from the far-ultraviolet to the mid-infrared. The unique combination of large area and depth provided by the Ultra Deep Survey allows us to trace the evolution of the K-band luminosity function with unprecedented accuracy. In particular, via a maximum likelihood analysis we obtain a simple parameterization for the luminosity function and its cosmological evolution, including both luminosity and density evolution, which provides an excellent description of the data from z =0 up to z~4. We find differential evolution for galaxies dependent on galaxy luminosity, revealing once again the ``down-sizing behaviour'' of galaxy formation. Finally, we compare our results with the predictions of the latest theoretical models of galaxy formation, based both on semi-analytical prescriptions, and on full hydrodynamical simulations.Comment: 11 pages, 6 figures, submitted to MNRA

    Did Galaxy Assembly and Supermassive Black-Hole Growth go hand-in-hand?

    Full text link
    In this paper, we address whether the growth of supermassive black-holes has kept pace with the process of galaxy assembly. For this purpose, we first searched the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) for "tadpole galaxies", which have a knot at one end and an extended tail. They appear dynamically unrelaxed -- presumably early-stage mergers -- and make up ~6% of the field galaxy population. Their redshift distribution follows that of field galaxies, indicating that -- if tadpole galaxies are indeed dynamically young -- the process of galaxy assembly generally kept up with the reservoir of field galaxies as a function of epoch. Next, we present a search for HUDF objects with point-source components that are optically variable (at the >~3.0 sigma level) on timescales of weeks--months. Among 4644 objects to i_AB=28.0 mag (10 sigma), 45 have variable point-like components, which are likely weak AGN. About 1% of all field objects show variability for 0.1 < z < 4.5, and their redshift distribution is similar to that of field galaxies. Hence supermassive black-hole growth in weak AGN likely also kept up with the process of galaxy assembly. However, the faint AGN sample has almost no overlap with the tadpole sample, which was predicted by recent hydrodynamical numerical simulations. This suggests that tadpole galaxies are early-stage mergers, which likely preceded the ``turn-on'' of the AGN component and the onset of visible point-source variability by >~1 Gyr.Comment: 9 pages, Latex2e requires 'elsart' and 'elsart3' (included), 10 postscript figures. To appear in the Proceedings of the Leiden Workshop on "QSO Host Galaxies: Evolution and Environment", eds. P.D. Barthel & D.B. Sanders (New Astron. Rev., 2006

    On the cosmic evolution of the scaling relations between black holes and their host galaxies: Broad Line AGN in the zCOSMOS survey

    Get PDF
    (Abriged) We report on the measurement of the rest frame K-band luminosity and total stellar mass of the hosts of 89 broad line Active Galactic Nuclei detected in the zCOSMOS survey in the redshift range 1<z<2.2. The unprecedented multiwavelength coverage of the survey field allows us to disentangle the emission of the host galaxy from that of the nuclear black hole in their Spectral Energy Distributions. We derive an estimate of black hole masses through the analysis of the broad Mg II emission lines observed in the medium-resolution spectra taken with VIMOS/VLT as part of the zCOSMOS project. We found that, as compared to the local value, the average black hole to host galaxy mass ratio appears to evolve positively with redshift, with a best fit evolution of the form (1+z)^{0.68 \pm0.12 +0.6 -0.3}, where the large asymmetric systematic errors stem from the uncertainties in the choice of IMF, in the calibration of the virial relation used to estimate BH masses and in the mean QSO SED adopted. A thorough analysis of observational biases induced by intrinsic scatter in the scaling relations reinforces the conclusion that an evolution of the MBH-M* relation must ensue for actively growing black holes at early times: either its overall normalization, or its intrinsic scatter (or both) appear to increase with redshift. This can be interpreted as signature of either a more rapid growth of supermassive black holes at high redshift, a change of structural properties of AGN hosts at earlier times, or a significant mismatch between the typical growth times of nuclear black holes and host galaxies.Comment: 47 pages, 8 figures. Accepted for publication in Ap

    The estimation of black-hole masses in distant radio galaxies

    Full text link
    We have estimated the masses of the central supermassive black holes of 2442 radio galaxies froma catalog compiled using data from the NED, SDSS, and CATS databases. Mass estimates based on optical photometry and radio data are compared. Relationships between the mass of the central black hole MpbhM_p^{bh} and the redshift zpz_p are constructed for both wavelength ranges. The distribution of the galaxies in these diagrams and systematic effects influencing estimation of the black-hole parameters are discussed. Upperenvelope cubic regression fits are obtained using the maximum estimates of the black-hole masses. The optical and radio upper envelopes show similar behavior, and have very similar peaks in position, zp‚ČÉ1.9z_p \simeq 1.9, and amplitude, log‚Ā°Mpbh\log M_p^{bh} = 9.4. This is consistent with a model in which the growth of the supermassive black holes is self-regulating, with this redshift corresponding to the epoch when the accretion-flow phase begins to end and the nuclear activity falls off.Comment: 8 pages, 6 figure

    The Star Formation Rate Density and Dust Attenuation Evolution over 12 Gyr with the VVDS Surveys

    Full text link
    [Abridged] We investigate the global galaxy evolution over 12 Gyr (0.05<z<4.5), from the star formation rate density (SFRD), combining the VVDS Deep (17.5<=I<=24.0) and Ultra-Deep (23.00<=i<=24.75) surveys. We obtain a single homogeneous spectroscopic redshift sample, totalizing about 11000 galaxies. We estimate the rest-frame FUV luminosity function (LF) and luminosity density (LD), extract the dust attenuation of the FUV radiation using SED fitting, and derive the dust-corrected SFRD. We find a constant and flat faint-end slope alpha in the FUV LF at z1.7, we set alpha steepening with (1+z). The absolute magnitude M*_FUV brightens in the entire range 02 it is on average brighter than in the literature, while phi* is smaller. Our total LD shows a peak at z=2, present also when considering all sources of uncertainty. The SFRD history peaks as well at z=2. It rises by a factor of 6 during 2 Gyr (from z=4.5 to z=2), and then decreases by a factor of 12 during 10 Gyr down to z=0.05. This peak is mainly produced by a similar peak within the population of galaxies with -21.5<=M_FUV<=-19.5 mag. As times goes by, the total SFRD is dominated by fainter and fainter galaxies. The presence of a clear peak at z=2 and a fast rise at z>2 of the SFRD is compelling for models of galaxy formation. The mean dust attenuation A_FUV of the global galaxy population rises by 1 mag during 2 Gyr from z=4.5 to z=2, reaches its maximum at z=1 (A_FUV=2.2 mag), and then decreases by 1.1 mag during 7 Gyr down to z=0. The dust attenuation maximum is reached 2 Gyr after the SFRD peak, implying a contribution from the intermediate-mass stars to the dust production at z<2.Comment: 23 pages, 15 figures, accepted for publication in A&
    • ‚Ķ
    corecore