36,669 research outputs found

    Literature Review

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    In 2007 there were a total of 2, 293, 257 prisoners in the United States (US Department of Justice). The number of individuals incarcerated in the U.S. has been increasing over the last 30 years (Jones & Pratt 2008). There are a number of negative consequences associated with the rising number of prison inmates. This increase in prisoners has led to an increase in homicide, violence and sexual assaults within prison walls (Colvin 1992). Approximately 300,000 inmates per year report being victims of sexual violence (Anderson 2001). There are 196,000 male prisoners every year who fall victim to sexual assaults (Anderson 2001). Sexual violence in prison has been a topic that has been significantly under-researched. There are many different types of sexual violence seen in prison and all can result in physical as well as emotional trauma for the victims (Lipscomb, Muram, Speck, & Mercer, 1992). This paper will address the prevalence of sexual violence that exists in American prisons. It will also examine the characteristics of the perpetrators as well as the victims, the types of assaults and the consequences these attacks have on the victim. It will also briefly identify what the government is doing to address and prevent the incidence of sexual assaults in our prisons

    Minorities in a democracy with special reference to India

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    I am proposing to deal with my subject "Minorities in a Democracy with special reference to India" under the following heads: A Recent Case; Nature and Relationship, Formation and Responses; Concluding Remarks. I. A Recent Case I became a member of the National Commission for Minorities on 3rd of December, 1996. This means I have now already served more than eleven months in this office. One of the ex-ercises, which I undertook during these eleven months, was to pay as many as visits to differ-ent states of India. Already I have covered about 16 states and Union Territories. One of the most recent visits was to my home state Panjab from October 21-25, 1997. The case with which I am going to share with you was the one with which I was faced unexpectedly during this visit. ..

    Guru Nanak Devji's teachings in the context of inter-faith dialogue in India

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    First, why I have avoided to use in this paper the expression ‚Äėthe Composite Culture‚Äô, which even is used in our Constitution of India to describe unified one culture of our country.1 It is because such a demand is not only against one of the basic realities of our Indian way of life, it also goes against the divine will, which was and is behind this created world with different shades and colours. In this regard the following observation made by Dr. Ram Singh is also noteworthy: It is debatable issue whether there is a separate entity called ‚Äúcomposite culture‚ÄĚ of India, or it is merely the interaction of various cultures which, instead of resulting into an integrated culture, are still in a position to maintain their separate identities. Beside what Dr. Ram Singh says, the reality is that multi or pluralism is part of our Indian or even Asian way of life. It is quite a different thing, if some of us are not willing to accept this truth. But it is still there, in the form of multi-cultures, multi-languages, multireligions and multiethnicities. Therefore the question of ‚Äėcomposite culture‚Äô is not only debatable, but also a doubtful principle, unless we are willing to take it as an eschatology reality. I do not intend to deal with this point in detail here, because of the time factor. But we may be able to come back to this question of ‚Äėcomposite culture, in our discussion if you will wish to do so. ..

    Young Women and Sexuality

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    We live in a society filled with many different beliefs regarding sex and not one belief is seemed to be more correct than the other. This was a topic I had wished to further investigate. Therefore, I had interviewed three 22 year old women all in college but all having different views regarding sex. To insure privacy and confidentiality the real names of the participants will not be disclosed

    On inter-religious relations with special reference to indian religious festivals

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    In recent years the role of 'religion' has generally been considered in the negative term, specially in India. Today, it may be a Kashmir or Punjab problem in North India, but all such problems are attributed to 'religion'. But that is when 'religion' is used at the higher level either by a state or sub-state, or by larger religious communities to protect their special interests. One such good example is of the Babri-Ramjanambhoomi conflict, over a Mosque and Temple, between the two larger communities of India, namely the Muslims and the Hindus. A recent film 'Bombay' in Hindi has well projected this problem from this angle. But then there is also the 'religion' of people, which operates at the lower or local levels, the level of ordinary people, where it plays the role of establishing relations, more correctly it helps building a larger community positively. This lecture deals with the latter form or level of religion. This lecture is based upon the actual case studies. Though these case studies belong to North West India, yet the application of these are applicable generally to the rest of India also. For the sake of convenience this lecture is divided into two parts. In part one, two cases, one from rural and the other from urban areas, dealing with the theme of 'relations in religion' are given, and in part two, some comments, along with a few views of others are offered, and at the end, in the form of concluding remarks a summary of the whole lecture is given

    The development of a labor reserve: the impact of colonial rule on Botswana

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    African Studies Center Working Paper No. 3

    A fresh look at Sikh religion

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    Among the World religions Sikh religion comparatively is young. Numerically also the followers of Sikh religions are not large. According to the Census of India in the grand total of India's population i.e. 6659, 2879, 8491, the total number of Sikhs is 13,078. 146 out of which 8,937.210 are living in the Panjab province of India and the remaining 4,1409936 are scattered in the rest of the country.[1] These figures do not include the Sikhs living in other countries like the U.K., Canada, USA and other Western and Eastern countries. As these fig-ures show percentwise Sikhs are less than 2%, but they are having a special place among their country people an account of their special characteristics i.e. very hard workers, technicalminded, adventurous nature and willing to embrace all kinds of work. Because of their adventurous and enthusiastic nature, today they are found almost all over the world. On account, of visible insignia given by Sikhs' tenth Guru which includes uncut hair (and use of turban) makes the Sikhs' presence felt in any place. - In this brief study of Sikh religion I will be limiting myself only with one area. I will be looking from the historical perspectives how the Sikh religion came into existence and its growth during the period of 1469 AD - 1703 AD. This period is the most important, because - all the development of Sikh religion belongs to this era only. ..
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