636 research outputs found

    ReLambro. Il fiume nuova infrastruttura ecologica della metropoli milanese

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    Lo studio raccoglie gli esiti di tre anni di progetto per la rete ecologica del Lambro Milanese cofinanziato da Fondazione Cariplo, con partner Politecnico di Milano, Ersaf (capofila), Legambiente Lombardia, PLIS Media Valle Lambro. Sviluppato in forma multidisciplinare come un documento di ricerca e azione, si propone con un vero e proprio documento di riferimento per tutti i soggetti che vogliono operare sul Lambro, o piĂč in generale in ambiti fluviali in contesti urbani, fornendo uno strumento pratico da utilizzare per le azioni di riqualificazione fluviale e ambientale, nell’ottica di migliorare la funzionalitĂ  eco-sistemica del territorio e costruire e rafforzare la connessione ecologica a tutela della biodiversitĂ 

    Innovative 3-D Printing Processing Techniques for Flexible and Wearable Planar Rectennas

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    This work demonstrates the use of a low-cost, lossy, flexible substrate processed by novel 3-D printing techniques which significantly mitigate its intrinsic losses, thus providing performance comparable to those of traditional substrates. These processing techniques are applied to both microstrip and coplanar waveguide structures; they are first derived theoretically, starting from the electromagnetic theory of modes propagation, then numerically validated by full-wave analysis, and finally experimentally verified. The design of a miniaturized 868 MHz rectenna, adopting a coplanar-fed patch antenna based on the proposed fabrication approach, is presented. By means of nonlinear/electromagnetic co-design, the antenna is directly matched to the rectifier. A 30-dB power range starting from -20 dBm is considered. Direct matching allows to get rid of a dedicated matching network and its associated losses, resulting in a slight efficiency increase and a significant reduction of the overall dimensions. Finally, the 3-Dprinted prototype is presented: the overall rectenna performance proves that design freedom enabled by 3-D printing paves the way to the use of low-cost flexible dielectric materials, even with poor electromagnetic properties, to realize wearable battery-free wireless nodes

    Focusing RF-on demand by logarithmic frequency-diverse arrays

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    The radiating systems exploiting the frequency diversity of the antennas are powerful architectures, that can have a big impact on wireless power transmission applications, but their characterization is merely theoretical. This paper offers a deep and critical numerical analysis of frequency- diverse arrays and shows the advantages of the family with logarithmic distribution of the frequency for radio-frequency energy focusing goals. For the first time, these systems are analyzed through a Harmonic Balance-based simulation combined with the full-wave description of the array made of eight planar monopoles: the rigorous results confirm the potentialities of these complex radiating systems, in particular show how the time-dependency of the radiating mechanism can be favorably deployed

    An all-in-one dual band blade antenna for ads-b and 5g communications in uav assisted wireless networks

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    This paper is aimed at the characterization and manufacturing of an SMA coaxial fed com-pact blade antenna with dual frequency characteristics for broadband applications on board of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs). This antenna is linearly polarized, and it combines the benefits of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) and 5th Generation (5G) communications in one single element, covering both the 1.030–1.090 GHz and the 3.4–3.8 GHz bands thanks to a bent side and a ‘C’ shaped slot within the radiation element. Starting from the simulation outcomes on an ideal ground plane, the results are here extended to a bent ground plane and on two UAV com-mercial CAD models. Details of manufacturing of the antenna in both aluminium and FR-4 substrate materials are presented. The comparison between measurements and simulations is discussed in terms of return loss, bandwidth, gain, and radiation pattern. Results show an antenna with a low profile and a simple structure that can be employed in various wideband communication systems, suiting future UAV assisted 5G networks while being perfectly compliant with forthcoming ADS-B based Detect-And-Avoid (DAA) technologies in Unmanned Aerial Traffic Management (UTM)

    Microwave Devices for Wearable Sensors and IoT

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    The Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm is currently highly demanded in multiple scenarios and in particular plays an important role in solving medical-related challenges. RF and microwave technologies, coupled with wireless energy transfer, are interesting candidates because of their inherent contactless spectrometric capabilities and for the wireless transmission of sensing data. This article reviews some recent achievements in the field of wearable sensors, highlighting the benefits that these solutions introduce in operative contexts, such as indoor localization and microwave sensing. Wireless power transfer is an essential requirement to be fulfilled to allow these sensors to be not only wearable but also compact and lightweight while avoiding bulky batteries. Flexible materials and 3D printing polymers, as well as daily garments, are widely exploited within the presented solutions, allowing comfort and wearability without renouncing the robustness and reliability of the built-in wearable sensor

    A Multi-Frequency Investigation of Air-To-Ground Urban Propagation Using a GPU-based Ray Launching Algorithm

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    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), also known as “drones”, are attracting increasing attention as enablers for many technical applications and services, and this trend is likely to continue in the next future. When compared to conventional terrestrial communications, those making use of UAVs as base- or relay-stations can definitely be more useful and flexible in reaction to specific events, like natural disasters and terrorist attacks. Among the many and different fields, UAV enabled communications emerge as one of the most promising solutions for next-generation mobile networks, with a special focus on the extension of coverage and capacity of mobile radio networks. Motivated by the air-to-ground (A2G) propagation conditions which are likely to be different than those experienced by traditional ground communication systems, this paper aims at investigating the narrowband properties of the air-to-ground channel for 5G communications and beyond by means of GPU accelerated ray launching simulations. Line of sight probability as well as path loss exponent and shadowing standard deviations are analysed for different UAV flight levels, frequencies and dense urban scenarios, and for different types of on board antennas. Thanks to the flexibility of the ray approach, the role played by the different electromagnetic interactions, namely reflection, diffraction and diffuse scattering, in the air-to-ground propagation process is also investigated. Computation time is reported as well to show that designing UAV communication networks and optimising their performances in a fast and reliable manner, might avoid exhausting – multiple - measurement campaigns

    Spatial and temporal variability of the dimethylsulfide to chlorophyll ratio in the surface ocean: an assessment based on phytoplankton group dominance determined from space

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    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is produced in surface seawater by phytoplankton. Phytoplankton culture experiments have shown that nanoeucaryotes (NANO) display much higher mean DMSP-to-Carbon or DMSP-to-Chlorophyll (Chl) ratios than Prochlorococcus (PRO), Synechococcus (SYN) or diatoms (DIAT). Moreover, the DMSP-lyase activity of algae which cleaves DMSP into dimethylsulfide (DMS) is even more group specific than DMSP itself. Ship-based observations have shown at limited spatial scales, that sea surface DMS-to-Chl ratios (DMS:Chl) are dependent on the composition of phytoplankton groups. Here we use satellite remote sensing of Chl (from SeaWiFS) and of Phytoplankton Group Dominance (PGD from PHYSAT) with ship-based sea surface DMS concentrations (8 cruises in total) to assess this dependence on an unprecedented spatial scale. PHYSAT provides PGD (either NANO, PRO, SYN, DIAT, Phaeocystis (PHAEO) or coccolithophores (COC)) in each satellite pixel (1/4° horizontal resolution). While there are identification errors in the PHYSAT method, it is important to note that these errors are lowest for NANO PGD which we typify by high DMSP:Chl. In summer, in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, we find that mean DMS:Chl associated with NANO + PHAEO and PRO + SYN + DIAT are 13.6±8.4 mmol g−1 (n=34) and 7.3±4.8 mmol g−1 (n=24), respectively. That is a statistically significant difference (P<0.001) that is consistent with NANO and PHAEO being relatively high DMSP producers. However, in the western North Atlantic between 40° N and 60° N, we find no significant difference between the same PGD. This is most likely because coccolithophores account for the non-dominant part of the summer phytoplankton assemblages. Meridional distributions at 22° W in the Atlantic, and 95° W and 110° W in the Pacific, both show a marked drop in DMS:Chl near the equator, down to few mmol g−1, yet the basins exhibit different PGD (NANO in the Atlantic, PRO and SYN in the Pacific). In tropical and subtropical Atlantic and Pacific waters away from the equatorial and coastal upwelling, mean DMS:Chl associated with high and low DMSP producers are statistically significantly different, but the difference is opposite of that expected from culture experiments. Hence, in a majority of cases PGD is not of primary importance in controlling DMS:Chl variations. We therefore conclude that water-leaving radiance spectra obtained simultaneously from ocean color sensor measurements of Chl concentrations and dominant phytoplankton groups can not be used to predict global fields of DMS