632 research outputs found

    Studies on the ocular hypotensive effect of Diamox

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    In our studies on the hypotensive effect of Diamox by intravenous injection, we have arrived at the following conclusions. 1. Ocular tension falls and the flow of aqueous humor becomes sluggish. 2. Diamox inhibits the activity of carbonic anhydrase, and the concentrations of HCO3-, K+, Cl- and glucose are markedly altered. 3. Protein increases both in blood and aqueous humor, but no change in protein fraction can be observed in blood. 4. Diamox in no way affects the metabolism. 5. It seems that Diamox brings about the change in the specific gravity of blood, making the latter either more diluted or more concentrated. From these, we conclude that the mechanism of the loweing of ocular tension by Diamox seems to lie in the fact that it inhibits the activity of carbonic anhydrase, and that consequent alteration in the concentrations of HCO3- and other ions accompanied by the change in osmotic pressure as well as a slight decrease of water in tissue all bring about the fall in the ocular tension. However, Diamox seems to have nothing to do with aqueous humor in so far as active transport or permeability are concerned.</p


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    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the forces exerted on the curling brush devised with strain gauges and angular velocity sensors. Force data obtained from the devised brush were compared with data obtained from the force plates. Mean values of the vertical forces during the sweeping were 185 N for the brush and 187 N for the force plates, respectively, and there were no significant differences between them. The horizontal forces were 38 N for the brush and 37 N for the force plate, respectively, and there were no differences between them. There were significant correlations (

    SHED-CM for ALS Treatment

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    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons, for which an effective treatment has yet to be developed. Previous reports have shown that excessive oxidative stress, related to mitochondrial dysfunction and the accumulation of misfolding protein, contributes to ALS pathology. In terms of treatment, it remains necessary to identify effective medicines for multiple therapeutic targets and have additive effects against several disorders. In this study, we investigated stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), which release many factors, such as neurotrophic factors and cytokines, and are applied to treat neurological diseases. Specifically, we examined whether SHED-conditioned medium (CM), i.e., the serum-free culture supernatant of SHED, reduced mutant SOD1-induced intracellular aggregates and neurotoxicity. We found that SHED-CM significantly suppressed the mutant SOD1-induced intracellular aggregates and neurotoxicity. The neuroprotective effects of SHED-CM are partly related to heat shock protein and the activation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor. SHED-CM also had a protective effect on induced pluripotent stem cell-derived motor neurons. Moreover, SHED-CM was effective against not only familial ALS but also sporadic ALS. Overall, these results suggest that SHED-CM could be a promising treatment for slowing the progression of ALS

    Off-Policy Evaluation of Ranking Policies under Diverse User Behavior

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    Ranking interfaces are everywhere in online platforms. There is thus an ever growing interest in their Off-Policy Evaluation (OPE), aiming towards an accurate performance evaluation of ranking policies using logged data. A de-facto approach for OPE is Inverse Propensity Scoring (IPS), which provides an unbiased and consistent value estimate. However, it becomes extremely inaccurate in the ranking setup due to its high variance under large action spaces. To deal with this problem, previous studies assume either independent or cascade user behavior, resulting in some ranking versions of IPS. While these estimators are somewhat effective in reducing the variance, all existing estimators apply a single universal assumption to every user, causing excessive bias and variance. Therefore, this work explores a far more general formulation where user behavior is diverse and can vary depending on the user context. We show that the resulting estimator, which we call Adaptive IPS (AIPS), can be unbiased under any complex user behavior. Moreover, AIPS achieves the minimum variance among all unbiased estimators based on IPS. We further develop a procedure to identify the appropriate user behavior model to minimize the mean squared error (MSE) of AIPS in a data-driven fashion. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the empirical accuracy improvement can be significant, enabling effective OPE of ranking systems even under diverse user behavior.Comment: KDD2023 Research trac

    Emergence of physiological rhythmicity in term and preterm neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit

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    BACKGROUND: Biological rhythmicity, particularly circadian rhythmicity, is considered to be a key mechanism in the maintenance of physiological function. Very little is known, however, about biological rhythmicity pattern in preterm and term neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). In this study, we investigated whether term and preterm neonates admitted to NICU exhibit biological rhythmicity during the neonatal period. METHODS: Twenty-four-hour continuous recording of four physiological variables (heart rate: HR recorded by electrocardiogram; pulse rate: PR recorded by pulse oxymetry; respiratory rate: RR; and oxygen saturation of pulse oxymetry: SpO(2)) was conducted on 187 neonates in NICU during 0–21 days of postnatal age (PNA). Rhythmicity was analyzed by spectral analysis (SPSS procedure Spectra). The Fisher test was performed to test the statistical significance of the cycles. The cycle with the largest peak of the periodogram intensities was determined as dominant cycle and confirmed by Fourier analysis. The amplitudes and amplitude indexes for each dominant cycle were calculated. RESULTS: Circadian cycles were observed among 23.8% neonates in HR, 20% in PR, 27.8% in RR and 16% in SpO(2 )in 0–3 days of PNA. Percentages of circadian cycles were the highest (40%) at <28 wks of gestational age (GA), decreasing with GA, and the lowest (14.3%) at >= 37 wks GA within 3 days of PNA in PR and were decreased in the later PNA. An increase of the amplitude with GA was observed in PR, and significant group differences were present in all periods. Amplitudes and amplitude indexes were positively correlated with postconceptional age (PCA) in PR (p < 0.001). Among clinical parameters, oxygen administration showed significant association (p < 0.05) with circadian rhythms of PR in the first 3 days of life. CONCLUSION: Whereas circadian rhythmicity in neonates may result from maternal influence, the increase of amplitude indexes in PR with PCA may be related to physiological maturity. Further studies are needed to elucidate the effect of oxygenation on physiological rhythmicity in neonates


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    Although many attempts have been made to study human colonic motility, the colonic transit is still poorly understood. Both spontaneous and neostigmine-induced peristalsis of the colon were studied with scintigraphy. A polythene tube was inserted into the cecum through a colonofiberscope. 37 MBq of ⁹⁹ᵐTc-DTPA and 75 ml of saline were instilled and dynamic scan was begun. Eight healthy volunteers were examined by the method above mentioned. The sampling time was set at fifteen seconds in six persons and three seconds in the rest. 0.5 mg of neostigmine was injected intravenously to stimulate the paristalsis when no peristalsis occurred within thirty minutes after the study was begun. Dynamic scanning was performed for sixty to ninety minutes. This scintigraphic study revealed that the spontaneous and induced peristalsis were almost identical on colonogram. ⁹⁹ᵐTc-DTPA solution was propelled from the cecum and ascending colon to the sigmoid colon or the rectum for about fifteen seconds during mass peristalsis. Colonogram (time-activity curve) enables us to analyze mass peristalsis easily and more objectively than colonoscintigram. The spontaneous and neostigmine-induced peristalsis seemed to be almost identical in all but one of eight subjects