11 research outputs found

    Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) from Porphyridium Cruentum: Increasing Growth and Productivity of the Microalgae for Pharmaceutical Products

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    One of the major nutritional requirements in our diet is an adequate intake of omega-3 specially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). In the present study, the effects of two temperatures (16°C & 20˚C) and light intensities (140 & 180µE/M2.S) and four nitrate levels (0.075, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7g/L) on the cell growth and lipid productivity of Porphyridium cruentum, one of the most promising oil-rich species of microalgae, were investigated. A growth comparison was carried out using pure CO2 and 5% CO2/air. Additionally, the ratio of the fatty acids with omega-3 and omega-6 groups at various growth conditions were compared, since an appropriate proportion of omega-6 (arachidonic acid(ARA)) to omega-3(EPA) is vital for healthy nutrition. Lower EPA production and consequently higher ARA/EPA ratio occurred when 5%CO2/Air was utilized as CO2 supplementation. The highest biomass productivity (143 mg/L.day) and EPA (13.08%w/w) were achieved at 20˚C, 140µE/M2.S and 0.3g/L nitrate, while lipid content was the lowest (0.5%w/w) at this condition. The optimal growth condition to produce the lowest ARA/EPA, 2.17, was achieved at 20°C, 140µE/M2.S (pure CO2) and 0.5g/L nitrate. The possible growth of P. cruentum in ultra-filtered swine wastewater was also evaluated in this study. P. cruentum was grown in different waste dilutions (total nitrogen concentrations of 12.4, 49.4, 82.4 and 115.3mg/L) to achieve the optimum nutrient condition for producing EPA. Various salinities (0-3.2%) were examined in the optimum nitrogen concentration. The data were compared to L1-medium and the results generally demonstrate better growth of P. cruentum in swine waste with higher lipid productivity and lipid content. The maximum lipid productivity (143mg/L) and lipid content (4.71 mg/100g biomass) was achieved in 3.2% salinity swine waste with 82.4mg/L nitrogen concentration while control medium with 2.5% salinity resulted the highest biomass productivity (3.76g/L). Markedly higher biomass productivity, lipid productivity and lipid content were achieved from swine waste culture diluted with seawater compared to saltwater. Higher C16:0, 18:2 and C20:5 (EPA) and lower C18:0 and ARA/EPA were achieved from swine waste culture compared to the control medium. Generally, the minimum ARA/EPA(1.33) was obtained at 82.4mg/L nitrogen concentration and 3.2% salinity in swine waste diluted with seawater

    Lung cancer and kidney injury: An updated review

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    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, accounting for an estimated 1.8 million deaths. Lung cancer is also the most common primary cancer leading to soft tissue (ST) metastasis. Renal disease may occur as a direct or indirect consequence of the cancer itself (e.g., post-renal obstruction, compression, or infiltration), its treatment (e.g., radiotherapy or chemotherapy), or its related complications (e.g., opportunistic infection). Existing evidence shows that the most frequent primary solid tumor responsible for renal metastasis is pulmonary carcinoma, followed by gastric, breast, soft tissue, and thyroid carcinomas. Chronic kidney disease is a potential risk factor in the survival of patients with lung cancer. In this review, we will discuss causes of kidney injury in relation to lung cancer, potential mechanisms of kidney injury, and treatment options

    Developing an Emotional Regulation Training Model and its Effectiveness on Students’ Internet Addiction: Exploring the Moderating Role of Brain- Behavior Systems

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    Background: Dysregulated emotional responses may promote addictive behaviors as a means of coping with high levels of stress. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of emotion regulation training on Internet addiction, focusing on the moderating role of brain-behavior systems.Method: This semi-experimental study used a pretest-posttest design with a control group and a follow-up phase. The study population included all Internet-using second secondary school students in Islamshahr, Iran in the second half of 2021. A total of 100 students were selected by purposive sampling and divided into three experimental groups (activation system (n=15), inhibition system (n=15), and fight-flight-freeze system (n=18)) and three control groups (activation system (n=16), inhibition system (n=17), and fight-flight-freeze system (n=19)). Over seven weeks, seven 90-minute emotion regulation training sessions were conducted, while the control group received no training. Research instruments included a revised questionnaire based on Jackson’s (2009) Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory and Young’s (2007) Internet Addiction Test. Normality of data distribution was tested using the Shapiro-Wilk index of Internet addiction for all three groups in three levels, the statistical index of Box’s M test, and the assumption of homogeneity of the covariance matrices of the dependent variable. Analysis of covariance was performed using SPSS version 26.Results: Findings suggested that emotion regulation skill training could reduce Internet addiction in individuals with the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) compared with other brain-behavior system groups (P<0.001). In addition, the Bonferroni test showed that the difference in the mean scores of Internet addiction was significant between the BIS and behavioral activation system (BAS) (P=0.432) groups as well as between BIS and fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS) groups (P=0.002) was significant. However, no significant difference was found in the mean score of Internet addiction between the BAS and FFFS groups (P=0.006).Conclusion: The results of the study suggested that emotion regulation training for students with different neurological and behavioral systems can help reduce their tendency to excessive Internet use. Acquiring emotion regulation skills can significantly affect the tendency to use the Internet excessively

    Students' Attitude Towards Marriage and Factors Affecting It

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    Introduction The aim of this research is to study female students' attitude towards marriage and factors affecting it in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Marriage is a basic institution in all societies and, which prepares the conditions for forming families and reproduction as one of most basic functions of society (Larson and Holman 1994; Higgins et al 2002). Not only does marriage have positive influences on physical and mental health of individuals, but it also plays a great role in transmitting to adulthood. As marriage is not isolated from specific conditions of time and location, it has its own characteristics in any given society (Shoa Kazemi and Harandi 2010:112). The Iranian society in recent years, along with changes in technology and relationships with other nations, has undergone many changes. Values and attitudes to the family and marriage are a part of these changes. When it come to women's role in different aspects of society, studying their values and attitudes become important. Changes in the structure of education, women's employment, improvements in their professional skills and diffusion of feminist ideas, all have led women to reflect on their traditional roles and identities. For example, they ask for equal rights in all aspects and want more freedom in mating. Materials and Methods This study is a cross-sectional survey with descriptive goals. The data was gathered by a researcher-made questionnaire from a population of 13181 female students in 2014 in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. The sample includes 374 students who were selected using stratified random sampling method. Discussion of Results and Conclusions   The results of the study show that our main hypothesis, which says “there is a significant relationship between perceptions of gender role clichés and attitudes towards marriage” is confirmed. This means that people who easily internalize and accept gender role clichés have more traditional attitudes toward marriage and vice versa. Likewise, the results also show that there is a significant relationship between respondents' religious background with their attitude towards marriage. This means that those with more religiosity, hold more traditional attitudes toward marriage, and those who have lower levels of religiosity, are more likely to have a modern attitude towards marriage.   The findings also show that there is significant relationship between attitude towards marriage and the variable of cost-benefit opportunity, namely, the respondents who believe marriage is a cost-benefit exchange, have a more modern attitude towards marriage. On the contrary, those respondents who believed marriage cannot be looked at as a cost-benefit transaction, have a more traditional attitude towards marriage.   The result of multiple regression analysis show that the amount of F is equal to 357/05 and the level o the significance is 0/000. Therefore, the model in its entirety is significant. By comparing the standardized regression coefficients (Beta) outputs of the multiple regression model for, we realized that religiosity has the most powerful effect on the dependent variable. The second most powerful independent variable is the variable of cost-benefit opportunity. Both of these variables had the highest effect on attitude towards marriage in a path analysis model as well. In sum this research show that student's attitude toward marriage is more traditional, when religiosity is the strongest predictor of attitude towards marriage

    Emotional Regulation Training, internet addiction disorder, and the Moderating Role of Brain-Behavioral Systems: Examination and analysis

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    The purpose of the current study was to examine the efficacy of emotional regulation training on Internet addiction disorder with the moderating role of brain-behavioral systems. The current research is a quasi-experimental study that employs with a pre-test/post-test design with a control group and a follow-up period for its purposes. The statistical population of the research were Internet using students of the second educational level in Islamshahr in the second half of 2021(15-20 years old girls). The research participants were selected using a convenience purposive sampling and were then randomly assigned to three experimental groups (45 people) and three control groups (45 people). Revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory Questionnaire (r-RST), Internet Addiction Inventory and Emotional Regulation Training scale were used to collect the data, which were then analyzed using SPSS v. 22. Findings: The findings indicated that emotional regulation training can significantly alleviate Internet addiction in three groups of behavioral activation system, brain inhibition and fight-flight-or-freeze response systems. Conclusion: The results of the study support the notion of using emotional regulation training to reduce internet addiction disorder in students

    Oral mucosa and Streptococcus mutans count in the saliva. Does graphene oxide nanoparticle mouthwash have a good effect?

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    Background: This study aimed to assess the effect of graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles mouthwash on oral mucosa, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) count in the saliva of rats, and human enamel surface microhardness, in comparison with fluoride mouthwash. Methods: This study was conducted in two phases namely an animal study, and an in vitro experimental study. GO mouthwash (0.005), sodium fluoride (NaF) mouthwash (0.05), and a combination of both (0.05 NaF-0.005 GO) were prepared. The oral cavity of 36 rats was inoculated with S. mutans, and they were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the type of mouthwash. The control group received saline mouthwash. Fourteen days after using the mouthwashes, all rats were sacrificed, and the salivary S. mutans count was measured. The buccal and tongue mucosa were also histologically examined for the type and severity of inflammation, number of blood vessels, epithelial thickness, and epithelial keratinization. For microhardness testing, 40 sound extracted human premolars were randomly assigned to four groups (n=10) of culture medium with S. mutans and different mouthwashes. The enamel microhardness was measured at 7 and 14 days, and compared with the baseline value. Results: The mean S. mutans count in the saliva of rats in GO and NaF-GO groups was significantly lower than that in other groups (p&#60;0.001). Enamel microhardness in NaF and NaF-GO groups significantly increased at 7 and 14 days, compared with baseline. Conclusion: Addition of GO nanoparticles improved the antibacterial properties without causing adverse mucosal effects such as ulceration, acute inflammation or atrophy of the epithelium of the oral mucosa, but had no effect on surface hardness of the enamel

    Herbal medicines in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

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    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel coronavirus, started in livestock within the markets of Wuhan, China and was consequently spread around the world. The virus has been rapidly spread worldwide due to the outbreak. COVID-19 is the third serious coronavirus outbreak in less than 20 years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012. The novel virus has a nucleotide identity closer to that of the SARS coronavirus than that of the MERS coronavirus. Since there is still no vaccine, the main ways to improve personal immunity against this disease are prophylactic care and self-resistance including an increased personal hygiene, a healthy lifestyle, an adequate nutritional intake, a sufficient rest, and wearing medical masks and increasing time spent in well ventilated areas. There is a need for novel antivirals that are highly efficient and economical for the management and control of viral infections when vaccines and standard therapies are absent. Herbal medicines and purified natural products have the potential to offer some measure of resistance as the development of novel antiviral drugs continues. In this review, we evaluated 41 articles related to herbal products which seemed to be effective in the prevention or treatment of COVID-19

    Lung cancer and kidney injury: an updated review

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    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, accounting for an estimated 1.8 million deaths. Lung cancer is also the most common primary cancer leading to soft tissue (ST) metastasis. Renal disease may occur as a direct or indirect consequence of the cancer itself (e.g., postrenal obstruction, compression, or infiltration), its treatment (e.g., radiotherapy or chemotherapy), or its related complications (e.g., opportunistic infection). Existing evidence shows that the most frequent primary solid tumor responsible for renal metastasis is pulmonary carcinoma, followed by gastric, breast, soft tissue, and thyroid carcinomas. Chronic kidney disease is a potential risk factor in the survival of patients with lung cancer. In this review, we will discuss causes of kidney injury in relation to lung cancer, potential mechanisms of kidney injury, and treatment options

    Porphyridium cruentum Grown in Ultra-Filtered Swine Wastewater and Its Effects on Microalgae Growth Productivity and Fatty Acid Composition

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    Microalgae have been extensively tested for their ability to create bio-based fuels. Microalgae have also been explored as an alternative wastewater treatment solution due to their significant uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as their ability to grow in different water types. Recently, there has been significant interest in combining these two characteristics to create economic and environmentally friendly biofuel using wastewater. This study examined the growth and lipid production of the microalgae Porphyridium (P.) cruentum grown in swine wastewater (ultra-filtered and raw) as compared with control media (L&minus;1, modified f/2) at two different salt concentrations (seawater and saltwater). The cultivation of P. cruentum in the treated swine wastewater media (seawater = 5.18 &plusmn; 2.3 mgL&minus;1day&minus;1, saltwater = 3.32 &plusmn; 1.93 mgL&minus;1day&minus;1) resulted in a statistically similar biomass productivity compared to the control medium (seawater = 2.61 &plusmn; 2.47 mgL&minus;1day&minus;1, saltwater = 6.53 &plusmn; 0.81 mgL&minus;1day&minus;1) at the corresponding salt concentration. Furthermore, no major differences between the fatty acid compositions of microalgae in the treated swine wastewater medium and the control medium were observed. For all conditions, saturated acids were present in the highest amounts (&ge;67%), followed by polyunsaturated (&le;22%) and finally monounsaturated (&le;12%). This is the first study to find that P. cruentum could be used to remediate wastewater and then be turned into fuel by using swine wastewater with a similar productivity to the microalgae grown in control media
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