136 research outputs found

    Understanding negotiable instruments: A guide for undergraduate business students

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    Essential information for undergraduate students on key negotiable instruments; cheques, bills of exchange and letters of credi

    Ecologically sustainable forest management in Victoria : existing regulation and future directions

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    The Sustainable Forests (Timber) Act 2004 (Vic) was designed as a framework for ecologically sustainable forest management (ESFM) of Victorian public forestry. It includes the principles of ecologically sustainable development (ESD). These principles are included in a range of natural resource management and conservation Acts around Australia. A separate regulatory framework applied to private forest management is also designed to support sustainable forest management. This study examines both the public and private sector forestry management in Victoria to appreciate the extent to which the existing framework for ESFM addresses the ESD principles. A critical realist research paradigm is adopted via regulatory theory, using four filtering mechanisms to assess the effectiveness of the current framework, including measuring and monitoring, compliance, ESD balance and governance standards. The thesis reports on two studies, that being public and private forestry. Within the two Victorian studies, an organisational perspective is also provided by way of analysis of the strategies and roles of VicForests (public) and Hancock Victorian Plantation Pty Ltd (HVP - the largest private forestry entity in Victoria.) Referring to regulatory theory and empirical evidence, an adapted regulatory mode using a precautionary risk management structure is proposed. This approach required application of sustainability criteria and indicators currently used to meet reporting obligations. The adapted regulation that resulted uses trigger points for an adaptive management response regulatory model. This model identifies the responsible parties for determining sustainability objectives and applying principles of ecologically sustainable development, data collection processes and review of data against criteria in order to activate the trigger and the resultant adaptive response. The end result is to evaluate data in order to determine when and how to activate a trigger for an adaptive response which is proportionate to the level of risk. The adapted model emphasises accountability and transparency, utilising bespoke sustainability criteria and indicators to inform each stage of the regulatory process. This model demonstrates the importance of using criteria and indicators in natural resource regulation, and that simply inserting sustainability principles and objectives into regulation is not sufficient to achieve worthwhile sustainability outcomes. This thesis concludes by evaluating this alternative model for implications to practice, policy and future research and its potential use in other resource sectors. Implications are drawn that this adapted framework could be a transferable template for other forestry jurisdictions and (with modifications) other natural resource sectorsDoctor of Philosoph

    The Queensland Human Rights Act and Environmental Approvals: Impact on Coal Mining

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    Banking and finance: in principle

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    This text comprises a combination of key principles, tutorial type questions and analysis in the area of banking and finance law, to introduce students to the fundamentals of the subject. It also includes cross references to Everett and McCraken's Banking and Financial Institutions Law, 6th ed and will be useful companion tot hat text

    Suppression Practices Legislation in Victoria ÔÇô A Potential Crisis for Church Authority?

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    The passage of the Change or Suppression (Conversion) Practices Prohibition Act 2021 (Vic) prohibits conversion therapy designed to inhibit or prevent the expression of persons sexual orientation or gender identity. Whilst this has general support as a positive restriction on negative practices it has raised the ire of some church leaders who object to church prayer and other practices being expressly singled out as practices that have the potential to breach restriction in the Act. This paper examines the key issues from a church perspective and asks whether the Act represents a potential threat to the legitimate expression of church authority

    Agriculture Biodiversity Stewardship Package (ABSP)

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    Honokiol Blocks Store Operated Calcium Entry in CHO Cells Expressing the M3 Muscarinic Receptor: Honokiol and Muscarinic Signaling

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    Background: Honokiol, a cell-permeable phenolic compound derived from the bark of magnolia trees and present in Asian herbal teas, has a unique array of pharmacological actions, including the inhibition of multiple autonomic responses. We determined the effects of honokiol on calcium signaling underlying transmission mediated by human M3 muscarinic receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Receptor binding was determined in radiolabelled ligand binding assays; changes in intracellular calcium concentrations were determined using a fura-2 ratiometric imaging protocol; cytotoxicity was determined using a dye reduction assay. Results: Honokiol had a potent (EC50 Ôëł 5 ╬╝mol/l) inhibitory effect on store operated calcium entry (SOCE) that was induced by activation of the M3 receptors. This effect was specific, rapid and partially reversible, and was seen at concentrations not associated with cytotoxicity, inhibition of IP3 receptor-mediated calcium release, depletion of ER calcium stores, or disruption of M3 receptor binding. Conclusions: It is likely that an inhibition of SOCE contributes to honokiol disruption of parasympathetic motor functions, as well as many of its beneficial pharmacological properties

    Oxidative Stress Disruption of Receptor-Mediated Calcium Signaling Mechanisms

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    Background: Oxidative stress increases the cytosolic content of calcium in the cytoplasm through a combination of effects on calcium pumps, exchangers, channels and binding proteins. In this study, oxidative stress was produced by exposure to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP); cell viability was assessed using a dye reduction assay; receptor binding was characterized using [3H]N-methylscopolamine ([3H]MS); and cytosolic and luminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i and [Ca2+]L, respectively) were measured by fluorescent imaging. Results: Activation of M3 muscarinic receptors induced a biphasic increase in [Ca2+]i: an initial, inositol trisphosphate (IP3)-mediated release of Ca2+ from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores followed by a sustained phase of Ca2+ entry (i.e., store-operated calcium entry; SOCE). Under non-cytotoxic conditions, tBHP increased resting [Ca2+]i; a 90 minute exposure to tBHP (0.5-10 mM) increased [Ca2+]i from 26 to up to 127 nM and decreased [Ca2+]L by 55%. The initial response to 10 ╬╝M carbamylcholine was depressed by tBHP in the absence, but not the presence, of extracellular calcium. SOCE, however, was depressed in both the presence and absence of extracellular calcium. Acute exposure to tBHP did not block calcium influx through open SOCE channels. Activation of SOCE following thapsigargin-induced depletion of ER calcium was depressed by tBHP exposure. In calcium-free media, tBHP depressed both SOCE and the extent of thapsigargin-induced release of Ca2+ from the ER. M3 receptor binding parameters (ligand affinity, guanine nucleotide sensitivity, allosteric modulation) were not affected by exposure to tBHP. Conclusions: Oxidative stress induced by tBHP affected several aspects of M3 receptor signaling pathway in CHO cells, including resting [Ca2+]i, [Ca2+]L, IP3 receptor mediated release of calcium from the ER, and calcium entry through the SOCE. tBHP had little effect on M3 receptor binding or G protein coupling. Thus, oxidative stress affects multiple aspects of calcium homeostasis and calcium dependent signaling
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