5,153 research outputs found

    Potency and Pregnancy in Japan: Did Viagra Push the Pill

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    A PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION OF THE INTENDED PURPOSE, ACTUAL USE, AND PERCEIVED BENEFIT OF DISTRICT-LED INTERIM ASSESSMENTS ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN NORTH CAROLINA SCHOOLS

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    This study examined the intended purposes, actual uses, and perceived benefits of interim assessments on student achievement from the perspectives of district leaders, school administrators, and classroom teachers. Quantitative research methodologies were utilized to describe the phenomena of interim assessment use in a sample of North Carolina school districts. Responses from an online survey were analyzed in order to categorize respondents' interim assessment use as Instructional, Predictive, Evaluative, or Multiple and to compare the dominant categories of district leaders, school administrators, and classroom teachers (Perie et al., 2009).   The findings reveal that interim assessments are given for Instructional purposes, using Instructional data analysis methods, and have Instructional benefits for students. When results were parsed by district, several endorsed the "Multiple" category suggesting a wide variety of purposes, uses, and benefits within the same district. When results were compared across roles, a statistically significant difference was found between district leaders, school administrators and classroom teachers. The results indicate that within the sample population surveyed, a person's response to questions regarding the purpose, use, and benefit of interim assessments is related to their role within the district.    The findings from the study espouse two main recommendations. First, it is vital that district and state educational leaders make careful and informed decisions about the purpose and use of interim assessments prior to implementation. Second, districts need to develop and communicate a coherent implementation plan that is aligned to the selected purpose and consistent across various roles within the district. Future research studies on the use of interim assessments may build a more comprehensive picture of and offer a more in-depth explanation for the phenomena revealed in this study. Such research could include a qualitative study on data analysis methods that are aligned to a specific interim assessment purpose, a case study showcasing schools in North Carolina that are using interim assessments for various purposes, and a quantitative study to determine whether interim assessments can be correlated to improved student achievement.  Ed.D

    Using the Lane-Change Test (LCT) to Assess Distraction: Tests of Visual-Manual and Speech-Based Operation of Navigation System Interfaces

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    The Lane Change Test (LCT) is an easy-to-implement, low-cost methodology for the evaluation of the distraction associated with performing invehicle tasks while driving (Mattes, 2003). In the present study, the LCT was used to assess driving performance when drivers completed navigation tasks using visual-manual or speech-based interfaces. Drivers performed two types of navigation tasks at two levels of difficulty. The results provide support for the LCT as an effective measure of distraction for both types of interface. It is recommended that the LCT procedure incorporate additional measures beyond the current mean deviation measure. Two measures are suggested: Lane Change Initiation, which reflects the aspects of driving having to do with detection and response delay as a result of distraction, and a measure of task duration to account for risk exposure

    Patterns of resistance development with integrase inhibitors in HIV

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    Raltegravir, the only integrase (IN) inhibitor approved for use in HIV therapy, has recently been licensed. Raltegravir inhibits HIV-1 replication by blocking the IN strand transfer reaction. More than 30 mutations have been associated with resistance to raltegravir and other IN strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs). The majority of the mutations are located in the vicinity of the IN active site within the catalytic core domain which is also the binding pocket for INSTIs. High-level resistance to INSTIs primarily involves three independent mutations at residues Q148, N155, and Y143. The mutations significantly affect replication capacity of the virus and are often accompanied by other mutations that either improve replication fitness and/or increase resistance to the inhibitors. The pattern of development of INSTI resistance mutations has been extensively studied in vitro and in vivo. This has been augmented by cell-based phenotypic studies and investigation of the mechanisms of resistance using biochemical assays. The recent elucidation of the structure of the prototype foamy virus IN, which is closely related to HIV-1, in complex with INSTIs has greatly enhanced our understanding of the evolution and mechanisms of IN drug resistance
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