3,375 research outputs found

    Multivectorial strategy to interpret a resistive behaviour of loads in smart buildings

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    In Smart buildings, electric loads are affected by an important distortion in the current and voltage waveforms, caused by the increasing proliferation of non linear electronic devices. This paper presents an approach on non sinusoidal power theory based on Geometric Algebra that clearly improves traditional methods in the optimization of apparent power and power factor compensation. An example is included that demonstrates the superiority of this approach compared with traditional methods.Universidad de M谩laga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andaluc铆a Tech

    Impurity in a granular gas under nonlinear Couette flow

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    We study in this work the transport properties of an impurity immersed in a granular gas under stationary nonlinear Couette flow. The starting point is a kinetic model for low-density granular mixtures recently proposed by the authors [Vega Reyes F et al. 2007 Phys. Rev. E 75 061306]. Two routes have been considered. First, a hydrodynamic or normal solution is found by exploiting a formal mapping between the kinetic equations for the gas particles and for the impurity. We show that the transport properties of the impurity are characterized by the ratio between the temperatures of the impurity and gas particles and by five generalized transport coefficients: three related to the momentum flux (a nonlinear shear viscosity and two normal stress differences) and two related to the heat flux (a nonlinear thermal conductivity and a cross coefficient measuring a component of the heat flux orthogonal to the thermal gradient). Second, by means of a Monte Carlo simulation method we numerically solve the kinetic equations and show that our hydrodynamic solution is valid in the bulk of the fluid when realistic boundary conditions are used. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic solution applies to arbitrarily (inside the continuum regime) large values of the shear rate, of the inelasticity, and of the rest of parameters of the system. Preliminary simulation results of the true Boltzmann description show the reliability of the nonlinear hydrodynamic solution of the kinetic model. This shows again the validity of a hydrodynamic description for granular flows, even under extreme conditions, beyond the Navier-Stokes domain.Comment: 23 pages, 11 figures; v2: Preliminary DSMC results from the Boltzmann equation included, Fig. 11 is ne

    Exploiting Genetically Modified Dual-Reporter Strains to Monitor Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi Infections and Host-Parasite Interactions.

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    Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease, the most important parasitic infection in Latin America. Despite a global research effort, there have been no significant treatment advances for at least 40 years. Gaps in our knowledge of T. cruzi biology and pathogenesis have been major factors in limiting progress. In addition, the extremely low parasite burden during chronic infections has complicated the monitoring of both disease progression and drug efficacy, even in predictive animal models. To address these problems, we genetically modified T. cruzi to express a red-shifted luciferase. Mice infected with these highly bioluminescent parasites can be monitored by in vivo imaging, with exquisite sensitivity. However, a major drawback of bioluminescence imaging is that it does not allow visualization of host-parasite interactions at a cellular level. To facilitate this, we generated T. cruzi strains that express a chimeric protein that is both bioluminescent and fluorescent. Bioluminescence allows the tissue location of infection foci to be identified, and fluorescence can then be exploited to detect parasites in histological sections derived from excised tissue. In this article, we describe in detail the in vivo imaging and confocal microscopy protocols that we have developed for visualizing T. cruzi parasites expressing these dual-reporter fusion proteins. The approaches make it feasible to locate individual parasites within chronically infected murine tissues, to assess their replicative status, to resolve the nature of host cells, and to characterize their immunological context

    Digitalization and real-time control to mitigate environmental impacts along rivers: Focus on artificial barriers, hydropower systems and European priorities

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    Hydropower globally represents the main source of renewable energy, and provides several benefits, e.g., water storage and flexibility; on the other hand, it may cause significant impacts on the environment. Hence sustainable hydropower needs to achieve a balance between electricity generation, impacts on ecosystems and benefits on society, supporting the achievement of the Green Deal targets. The implementation of digital, information, communication and control (DICC) technologies is emerging as an effective strategy to support such a trade-off, especially in the European Union (EU), fostering both the green and the digital transitions. In this study, we show how DICC can foster the environmental integration of hydropower into the Earth spheres, with focus on the hydrosphere (e.g., on water quality and quantity, hydropeaking mitigation, environmental flow control), biosphere (e.g., improvement of riparian vegetation, fish habitat and migration), atmosphere (reduction of methane emissions and evaporation from reservoirs), lithosphere (better sediment management, reduction of seepages), and on the anthroposphere (e.g., reduction of pollution associated to combined sewer overflows, chemicals, plastics and microplastics). With reference to the abovementioned Earth spheres, the main DICC applications, case studies, challenges, Technology Readiness Level (TRL), benefits and limitations, and transversal benefits for energy generation and predictive Operation and Maintenance (O&M), are discussed. The priorities for the European Union are highlighted. Although the paper focuses primarly on hydropower, analogous considerations are valid for any artificial barrier, water reservoir and civil structure which interferes with freshwater systems.Digitalization and real-time control to mitigate environmental impacts along rivers: Focus on artificial barriers, hydropower systems and European prioritiespublishedVersio

    Binding site plasticity in viral PPxY Late domain recognition by the third WW domain of human NEDD4

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    The recognition of PPxY viral Late domains by the third WW domain of the HECT-E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 (hNEDD4-WW3) is essential for the completion of the budding process of numerous enveloped viruses, including Ebola, Marburg, HTLV1 or Rabies. hNEDD4-WW3 has been validated as a promising target for the development of novel host-oriented broad spectrum antivirals. Nonetheless, finding inhibitors with good properties as therapeutic agents remains a challenge since the key determinants of binding affinity and specificity are still poorly understood. We present here a detailed structural and thermodynamic study of the interactions of hNEDD4-WW3 with viral Late domains combining isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR structural determination and molecular dynamics simulations. Structural and energetic differences in Late domain recognition reveal a highly plastic hNEDD4-WW3 binding site that can accommodate PPxY-containing ligands with varying orientations. These orientations are mostly determined by specific conformations adopted by residues I859 and T866. Our results suggest a conformational selection mechanism, extensive to other WW domains, and highlight the functional relevance of hNEDD4-WW3 domain conformational flexibility at the binding interface, which emerges as a key element to consider in the search for potent and selective inhibitors of therapeutic interest.This research has been financed by grants BIO2009-13261-C02, BIO2012-39922-CO2 and BIO2016-78746-C2-1-R from the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science (I.L.) including AEI/FEDER EU funds, by CTQ2017-83810-R grant (F.J.B) and by BFU2014-53787-P, the IRB Barcelona and the BBVA Foundation (M.J.M)

    New compound sets identified from high throughput phenotypic screening against three kinetoplastid parasites:an open resource

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    Using whole-cell phenotypic assays, the GlaxoSmithKline high-throughput screening (HTS) diversity set of 1.8 million compounds was screened against the three kinetoplastids most relevant to human disease, i.e. Leishmania donovani, Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei. Secondary confirmatory and orthogonal intracellular anti-parasiticidal assays were conducted, and the potential for non-specific cytotoxicity determined. Hit compounds were chemically clustered and triaged for desirable physicochemical properties. The hypothetical biological target space covered by these diversity sets was investigated through bioinformatics methodologies. Consequently, three anti-kinetoplastid chemical boxes of ~200 compounds each were assembled. Functional analyses of these compounds suggest a wide array of potential modes of action against kinetoplastid kinases, proteases and cytochromes as well as potential host鈥損athogen targets. This is the first published parallel high throughput screening of a pharma compound collection against kinetoplastids. The compound sets are provided as an open resource for future lead discovery programs, and to address important research questions.The support and funding of Tres Cantos Open Lab Foundation is gratefully acknowledgedPeer reviewe