36 research outputs found

    A study of photoionized gas in two HII regions of the N44 complex in the LMC using MUSE observations

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    We use the optical integral field observations with Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on the Very Large Telescope, together with CLOUDY photoionization models to study ionization structure and physical conditions of two luminous HII regions in N44 star-forming complex of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectral maps of various emission lines reveal a stratified ionization geometry in N44 D1. The spatial distribution of [O I] 6300A emission in N44 D1 indicates a partially covered ionization front at the outer boundary of the H II region. These observations reveal that N44 D1 is a Blister HII region. The [O I] 6300A emission in N44 C does not provide a well-defined ionization front at the boundary, while patches of [S II] 6717 A and [O I] 6300A emission bars are found in the interior. The results of spatially resolved MUSE spectra are tested with the photoionization models for the first time in these HII regions. A spherically symmetric ionization-bounded model with a partial covering factor, which is appropriate for a Blister HII region can well reproduce the observed geometry and most of the diagnostic line ratios in N44 D1. Similarly, in N44 C we apply a low density and optically thin model based on the observational signatures. Our modeling results show that the ionization structure and physical conditions of N44 D1 are mainly determined by the radiation from an O5 V star. However, local X-rays, possibly from supernovae or stellar wind, play a key role. In N44 C, the main contribution is from three ionizing stars.Comment: Accepted for publication in Ap

    First Detection of an H2CO 6 cm Maser Flare: A Burst in IRAS 18566+0408

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    We report the discovery of a short-duration (less than 3 months) outburst of the H2CO 6 cm maser in IRAS 18566+0408 (G37.55+0.20). During the flare, the peak flux density of the maser increased by a factor of 4; after less than a month, it decayed to the preflare value. This is the first detection of a short, burstlike variability of an H2CO 6 cm maser. The maser shows an asymmetric line profile that is consistent with the superposition of two Gaussian components. We did not detect a change in the velocity or the line width of the Gaussian components during the flare. If the two Gaussian components trace two separate maser regions, then very likely an event outside the maser gas triggered simultaneous flares at two different locations

    On the Origin of the Initial Mass Function

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    It is usually assumed that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) takes a universal form and that there exists a direct mapping between this and the distribution of natal core masses (the core mass function, CMF). The IMF and CMF have been best characterized in the Solar neighborhood. Beyond 500~pc from the Sun, in diverse environments where metallicity varies and massive star feedback may dominate, the IMF has been measured only incompletely and imprecisely, while the CMF has hardly been measured at all. In order to establish if the IMF and CMF are indeed universal and related to each other, it is necessary to: 1) perform multi-wavelength large-scale imaging and spectroscopic surveys of different environments across the Galaxy; 2) require an angular resolution of < 0.1'' in the optical/near-IR for stars and < 5'' in the far-IR for cores; 3) achieve far-IR sensitivities to probe 0.1~Msol cores at 2-3 kpc

    Kinematic Structure of Molecular Gas around High-mass Star YSO, Papillon Nebula, in N159 East in the Large Magellanic Cloud

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    We present the ALMA Band 3 and Band 6 results of 12CO(2-1), 13$CO(2-1), H30alpha recombination line, free-free emission around 98 GHz, and the dust thermal emission around 230 GHz toward the N159 East Giant Molecular Cloud (N159E) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). LMC is the nearest active high-mass star forming face-on galaxy at a distance of 50 kpc and is the best target for studing high-mass star formation. ALMA observations show that N159E is the complex of filamentary clouds with the width and length of ~1 pc and 5 pc - 10 pc, respectively. The total molecular mass is 0.92 x 10^5 Msun from the 13CO(2-1) intensity. N159E harbors the well-known Papillon Nebula, a compact high-excitation HII region. We found that a YSO associated with the Papillon Nebula has the mass of 35 Msun and is located at the intersection of three filamentary clouds. It indicates that the formation of the high-mass YSO was induced by the collision of filamentary clouds. Fukui et al. 2015 reported a similar kinematic structure toward a YSO in the N159 West region which is another YSO that has the mass larger than 35 Msun in these two regions. This suggests that the collision of filamentary clouds is a primary mechanism of high-mass star formation. We found a small molecular hole around the YSO in Papillon Nebula with sub-pc scale. It is filled by free-free and H30alpha emission. Temperature of the molecular gas around the hole reaches ~ 80 K. It indicates that this YSO has just started the distruction of parental molecular cloud.Comment: 28 pages, 7 figures. Submitted to Ap