9,406 research outputs found

    Phase Maps for Two Jury Deliberations

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    These are the phase maps of the jury deliberations referenced in the article "Exploring Conflict Management Processes In Jury Deliberations Through Interaction Analysis" published in Small Group Researchunpublishe

    Complex training: The effect of exercise selection and training status on postactivation potentiation in rugby league players

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    This study compared the postactivation potentiation (PAP) response of the hex bar deadlift (HBD) and back squat (BS) exercises. The PAP response between different levels of athletes was also compared. Ten professional and 10 amateur rugby league players performed 2 experimental sessions. Participants performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 minutes after a conditioning activity (CA) that contained 1 set of 3 repetitions at 93% 1 repetition maximum of either HBD or BS. A force platform determined peak power output (PPO), force at PPO, velocity at PPO, and jump height of each CMJ. Surface electromyography (EMG) of the vastus lasteralis, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius medialis of each participant's dominant leg was recorded during each CMJ. A further 10 participants performed a control trial without a CA. The HBD expressed PAP between 2 and 6 minutes post-CA, whereas the BS did not. The HBD exhibited a significantly (p ≀ 0.05) greater PAP response than the BS for PPO. There were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between stronger and weaker players. There were no significant (p > 0.05) changes in the EMG variables. These results suggest that HBD is a suitable CA for eliciting PAP in stronger and weaker athletes. Strength and conditioning coaches should consider the CA and time frame between the CA and the plyometric exercise for optimal PAP responses

    Utilizing Synthetic Tools to Address Biological Issues

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    With the advent of chemoselective reactions and unnatural amino acids (UAAs), the fields of molecular biology and organic synthesis are merging. Researchers are developing synthetic tools and producing small molecules that are able to affect and investigate large biomolecules and complex living systems. This thesis undertakes a survey of synthetic techniques to develop novel tools that can be employed to address a variety of relevant biological questions. Specifically, we are investigating alternatives and improvements to caging groups, including photoreversible azobenzene UAAs and an UAA caging group possessing a bioorthogonal handle. Also, we are developing a novel system to undergo copper-free 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions, utilizing microwave irradiation. Adapting this methodology, we showcase the first transition and metal free bioconjugations utilizing microwave irradiation through CoolMate technology. Finally, we are examining a method to insert a highly reactive selenocysteine amino acid into proteins via the integration of a caging group and unnatural amino acid technologies

    Application of nonlinear mixed effects modelling in the early phases of drug development

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    It has been proposed that the use of cross-over or dose escalation designs for dose ranging studies in combination with more informative analysis could lead to a better characterisation of the dose response relationship. In example presented, the dose response relationship for the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A inhibitors (HMG COA) inhibitor, simvastatin, was estimated from a cross-over study which covered the current recommended dose range (10 to 40 mg). Analysis using nonlinear mixed effects modelling approach demonstrated that the selected doses only covered 20% (70% to 90%) of the upper part of the estimated dose response relationship. It was concluded that a lower dose strength would be required to allow adjustment within the log-linear portion of the dose response relationship. The clinical implications of potential relationships between the pre-treatment cholesterol level and the model parameters were explored through prediction and simulation. On simulating the relationship between dose and the percentage of patients who would achieve reductions to below a recognised target concentration, it was found that a different set of dosages may better optimise clinical response. Where strict experimental design is invalidated by study design or restricted recruitment, the resulting data can be unbalanced and not easily analysed by standard statistical methods. In the example presented, the number and size of doses of dofetilide used to test for PK/PD differences between patients with ischaemic heart disease (ISH) and healthy volunteers were different. A population PK/PD modelling approach was implemented, and no difference between the two groups could be detected. The Cmax and peak QTc ranged were predicted to be narrower following a fixed dose regimen in comparison to a dose per kilogram regimen. However, after incorporating the PK/PD variability, this was not predicted to manifest into an overall increase in the risk of Torsades de Pointes

    Classification of Aquifers

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    This dissertation contains three papers describing an approach to classifying aquifers and groundwater systems. The three papers bring together the development of a basin scale groundwater classification system that integrates the literature, data gathering, and data analysis and testing. The classification system is a comprehensive method designed to improve interdisciplinary communication and standardize how groundwater systems are compared in watersheds across in the west and potentially beyond. Aquifers and groundwater systems can be classified using a variety of independent methods to characterize geologic and hydraulic properties, the degree of connection with surface water, and geochemical conditions. In light of a growing global demand for water associated with population growth, land development, and the expected effects of climate change, a standardized approach for classifying groundwater systems at the watershed scale is needed. To this end, a comprehensive classification system is developed that combines recognized methods and new approaches into one system. The purpose of this approach is to provide groundwater professionals, policy makers, and watershed managers with a widely applicable classification system that reduces sometimes cumbersome complex groundwater databases and analyses to straightforward graphical representations. The proposed classification system uses basin geology, aquifer productivity, threats and impacts posed by humans, water quality, and the degree of groundwater/surface water exchange as classification criteria. The approach is based on literature values, reference databases, and basic hydrologic and hydrogeologic principles. The proposed classification system treats data set completeness as a variable and includes a tiered assessment protocol that depends on the quality and quantity of data. In addition, it assembles and catalogs groundwater information using a consistent set of nomenclature. It is designed to analyze and display results using Geographical Information System (GIS) mapping tools, while standardizing descriptions of groundwater conditions and to support resource managers as they make land use decisions at the watershed scale. Together, the three papers describe a method for comparing and contrasting aquifer properties and systems needed by watershed managers. It is argued that the proposed methodology is needed to assist managers and planner in understanding the role of aquifers in watersheds as well as for the broad multi-basin comparison of aquifer data . The classification method does not replace current standard practices traditionally used to assess or characterize aquifers and groundwater systems. However, it does provide a standard methodology by which existing and new hydrogeologic data can be organized, easily communicated, and broadly compared on a watershed scale of 1:100,000 to 1:250,000. It is believed this classification system will promote an improved technical understanding between groundwater professionals and natural resource managers. Three appendices are included in this dissertation. The appendices provide supporting information for the three papers and results for four case studies

    Effects of Fertilizers on Cultured Salt Marsh Plants, Ruppia and Chara

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    Widgeongrass (Ruppia maritima), muskgrass (Chara Sp.), and midge larvae (family Chironomidae) were grown under controlled greenhouse conditions using a solution of Logan tap water, 3000 ppm. sodium chloride, and an algicide-fungicide inhibiter. Soil, vegetation, and invertebrates came from a spring-fed marsh in western Utah. Ammonium sulfate, treble superphosphate, and sewage sludge fertilizers were applied to the plants at 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 300 pounds per acre equivalents of ammonium sulfate; 5, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 300 pounds per acre equivalents of treble superphsophate; and 5, 25, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500,700, and 1000 pounds per acre equivalents of sewage sludge. Widgeongrass plants had weights below the control at all fertilizer levels. Plant lengths at treatment levels of 10 pounds per acre equivalents ammonium sulfate and 5 pounds per acre equivalents sewage sludge were greater than the control length, but the differences were not significant. Muskgrass plants had weights which were neither significantly above or below the control weight. Muskgrass plants at the 75 pounds per acre rate of treble superphosphate had significantly greater lengths than did the control. The highest chironom.id survival rate, 12. 6 percent, occurred in the control treatm.ent. B1uegreen algae, Oscilatoria sp., was present in all fertilized treatments

    3D and 4D printing of metal-organic frameworks

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    This thesis describes the development of new composite materials by the 3D printing of metal- organic frameworks. The application of these composites in various settings is described.Chapter 1 contains a review of the area of additive manufacturing with a focus on 3D printing and 4D printing. This introduces applications of 3D printing within the chemistry field and wider fields and gives a review of metal-organic frameworks. The application of metal-organic frameworks as catalysts and in 3D printing are described.Chapter 2 describes the experimental work undertaken and the design of the experimental rig for the printing of UV-curable polymer matrices under an inert atmosphere. This chapter contains detailed synthetic methods and procedures used for characterisation equipment used for this work and any characterisation limitations.Chapter 3 contains the work related to the use of magnetically aligned MOFs by the addition of iron. A method for the alignment of iron-rich MOF particles and adsorbed iron oxide nanoparticles in solution by the application of a magnetic field is presented. The alignment of MOF particles with up to 10wt.% iron oxide nanoparticles in a photo-curable polymer resin is demonstrated and the anisotropic optical response of the same is described. The 4D printing of magnetically aligned MOFs in a polymer resin is described.Chapter 4 contains works related to the ability of UiO-66 to catalyse and degrade nerve agent simulant as a novel 4D printed polymer composite. This demonstrates that a macroscopic MOF composite can be used to degrade a nerve agent simulation. A new technique is trialled for the partial calcination of the polymer composite resulting in a micro and meso porous structure with a high specific surface area (633 mÂČg-Âč). This technique and the physical properties investigated of the resulting monolith are described.Chapter 5 presents results of metal-organic framework gels as potential additives for 3D printing and a novel direct-write ink. Metal-organic framework gels of UiO-66, UiO-66-NH₂ and ZIF-8 are fabricated and their ability to act as a rheology modifiers are investigated. Trials are described for the novel 3D printing of metal-organic framework gels and adsorption properties investigated

    An Empirical Investigation of Debt Contract Design: The Determinants of the Choice of Debt Terms in Eurobond Issues

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    This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the determinants for the optimal choice of contract terms on Eurobonds issued by UK companies. We examine predictions of extant theories that associate the choice of debt features namely, maturity, call options, convertible options, and protective covenants to firm and market characteristics. Like in Correia (2003), a simultaneous equations approach is adopted to test the alternative use of contract features for mitigating debt-contracting costs. The evidence provides strong support to the prediction that both callable and short-term debt and convertible and debt with protective covenants are used as alternative control devises to mitigate agency costs. Further evidence suggests, however, that contrary to the fundamentals guiding the choice of maturity and callability structures, the use of conversion options and protective covenants in Eurobond contracts seems to be determined by equity agency costs rather than debt agency costs. Also, some support is found for the risk uncertainty theory underlying the use of convertibles and for liquidity risk arguments regarding the choice to include protective covenants.