215 research outputs found

    Fractional quantization of the topological charge pumping in a one-dimensional superlattice

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    A one-dimensional quantum charge pump transfers a quantized charge in each pumping cycle. This quantization is topologically robust being analogous to the quantum Hall effect. The charge transferred in a fraction of the pumping period is instead generally unquantized. We show, however, that with specific symmetries in parameter space the charge transferred at well-defined fractions of the pumping period is quantized as integer fractions of the Chern number. We illustrate this in a one-dimensional Harper-Hofstadter model and show that the fractional quantization of the topological charge pumping is independent of the specific boundary conditions taken into account. We further discuss the relevance of this phenomenon for cold atomic gases in optical superlattices.Comment: 8 pages, 7 figures, new material adde

    Theoretical approach to Direct Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering on Magnets and Superconductors

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    The capability to probe the dispersion of elementary spin, charge, orbital, and lattice excitations has positioned resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the forefront of photon science. In this work, we will investigate how RIXS can contribute to a deeper understanding of the orbital properties and of the pairing mechanism in unconventional high-temperature superconductors. In particular, we will show how direct RIXS spectra of magnetic excitations can reveal long-range orbital correlations in transition metal compounds, by discriminating different kind of orbital order in magnetic and antiferromagnetic systems. Moreover, we will show how RIXS spectra of quasiparticle excitations in superconductors can measure the superconducting gap magnitude, and reveal the presence of nodal points and phase differences of the superconducting order parameter on the Fermi surface. This can reveal the properties of the underlying pairing mechanism in unconventional superconductors, in particular cuprates and iron pnictides, discriminating between different superconducting order parameter symmetries, such as s, d (singlet pairing) and p wave (triplet pairing)

    Theoretical approach to direct resonant inelastic x-ray scattering on magnets and superconductors

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    The capability to probe the dispersion of elementary spin, charge, orbital, and lattice excitations has positioned resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the forefront of photon science. In this work, we will investigate how RIXS can contribute to a deeper understanding of the orbital properties and of the pairing mechanism in unconventional high-temperature superconductors. In particular, we will show how direct RIXS spectra of magnetic excitations can reveal long-range orbital correlations in transition metal compounds, by discriminating different kind of orbital order in magnetic and antiferromagnetic systems. Moreover, we will show how RIXS spectra of quasiparticle excitations in superconductors can measure the superconducting gap magnitude, and reveal the presence of nodal points and phase differences of the superconducting order parameter on the Fermi surface. This can reveal the properties of the underlying pairing mechanism in unconventional superconductors, in particular cuprates and iron pnictides, discriminating between different superconducting order parameter symmetries, such as ss, dd (singlet pairing) and pp wave (triplet pairing).Comment: Ph. D. thesis, IFW-Dresden and Technische Universitaet Dresden. Submitted in February 2015, defended in October 2015. Partially based on: arXiv:1405.5556, arXiv:1302.5028, arXiv:1212.0112, and arXiv:1205.4940. Revised version. 132 pages, 30 figure

    Theoretical approach to resonant inelastic x-ray scattering in iron-based superconductors at the energy scale of the superconducting gap

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    We develop a phenomenological theory to predict the characteristic features of the momentum-dependent scattering amplitude in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the energy scale of the superconducting gap in iron-based superconductors. Taking into account all relevant orbital states as well as their specific content along the Fermi surface we evaluate the charge and spin dynamical structure factors for the compounds LaOFeAs and LiFeAs, based on tight-binding models which are fully consistent with recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data. We find a characteristic intensity redistribution between charge and spin dynamical structure factors which discriminates between sign-reversing and sign-preserving quasiparticle excitations. Consequently, our results show that RIXS spectra can distinguish between s±s_\pm and s++s_{++} wave gap functions in the singlet pairing case. In addition, we find that an analogous intensity redistribution at small momenta can reveal the presence of a chiral pp-wave triplet pairing.Comment: 12 pages, 5 figure

    Degeneracy lifting of Majorana bound states due to electron-phonon interactions

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    We study theoretically how electron-phonon interaction affects the energies and level broadening (inverse lifetime) of Majorana bound states (MBSs) in a clean topological nanowire at low temperatures. At zero temperature, the energy splitting between the right and left MBSs remains exponentially small with increasing nanowire length LL. At finite temperatures, however, the absorption of thermal phonons leads to the broadening of energy levels of the MBSs that does not decay with system length, and the coherent absorption/emission of phonons at opposite ends of the nanowire results in MBSs energy splitting that decays only as an inverse power-law in LL. Both effects remain exponential in temperature. In the case of quantized transverse motion of phonons, the presence of Van Hove singularities in the phonon density of states causes additional resonant enhancement of both the energy splitting and the level broadening of the MBSs. This is the most favorable case to observe the phonon-induced energy splitting of MBSs as it becomes much larger than the broadening even if the topological nanowire is much longer than the coherence length. We also calculate the charge and spin associated with the energy splitting of the MBSs induced by phonons. We consider both a spinless low-energy continuum model, which we evaluate analytically, as well as a spinful lattice model for a Rashba nanowire, which we evaluate numerically

    1D Majorana Goldstinos and extended supersymmetry in quantum wires

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    One-dimensional Majorana modes can be obtained as boundary excitations of topologically nontrivial two-dimensional topological superconductors. Here, we propose instead the bottom-up creation of one-dimensional, counterpropagating, and dispersive Majorana modes as bulk excitations of a periodic chain of partially-overlapping, zero-dimensional Majorana modes in proximitized quantum nanowires via periodically-modulated magnetic fields. These dispersive one-dimensional Majorana modes can be either massive or massless. Massless Majorana modes are pseudohelical, having opposite Majorana pseudospin, and realize emergent quantum mechanical supersymmetry. The system exhibits extended supersymmetry with central extensions and with spontaneous partial breaking. We identify the massless Majorana fermions as Goldstinos, i.e., the Nambu-Goldstone fermions associated with the spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry. The experimental fingerprint of massless Majorana modes and supersymmetry is the presence of a finite zero-bias peak, which is generally not expected for Majorana modes with a finite overlap and localized at a finite distance. Moreover, slowly varying magnetic fields can realize an adiabatic Majorana pump which can be used as a dynamically probe of topological superconductivity.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figures, minor revision, references adde
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