87 research outputs found

    Social heterogeneity in self-reported health status and measurement of inequalities in health

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    This study aims to analyse the impact of the measurement of health status on socioeconomic inequalities in health. A MIMIC model with structural equations is used to create a latent variable of health status from four health indicators: self-assessed health, report of chronic diseases, report of activity limitations and mental health. Then, we disentangle the impact of sociodemographic characteristics on latent health from their direct impact on each heath indicator and discuss their effects on the assessment of socioeconomic inequalities in health. This study emphasises differences in inequalities in health according to latent health. In addition, it suggests the existence of reporting heterogeneity biases. For a given latent health status, women and old people are more likely to report chronic diseases. Mental health problems are over-reported by women and isolated people and under-reported by the oldest people. Active and retired people as well as non manual workers in the top of the social hierarchy more often report activity limitations. Finally, highly educated and socially advantaged people more often report chronic diseases whereas less educated people under-report a poor self-assessed health. To conclude, the four health indicators suffer from reporting heterogeneity biases and the report of chronic diseases is the indicator which biases the most the measurement of socioeconomic inequalities in health.inequalities in health - MIMIC - reporting bias - structural equations

    La santé des seniors selon leur origine sociale et la longévité de leurs parents.

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    Les descendants des cadres dirigeants et professions intellectuelles ont-ils une meilleure santĂ© que les descendants d’ouvriers ? Est-ce que la longĂ©vitĂ© des parents infl uence l’état de santĂ© Ă  l’ñge adulte ? Ces deux questions interrogent l’existence d’inĂ©galitĂ©s des chances en santĂ©. La premiĂšre question a dĂ©jĂ  fait l’objet de travaux de recherche : l’infl uence du milieu social d’origine rĂ©sulterait Ă  la fois d’un effet direct des conditions de vie dans l’enfance sur la santĂ© Ă  l’ñge adulte et d’un effet indirect passant par l’infl uence du milieu d’origine sur le statut socioĂ©conomique du descendant. La seconde, qui concerne une transmission de la santĂ© entre les gĂ©nĂ©rations a Ă©tĂ© peu explorĂ©e. Cependant, une infl uence directe de l’état de santĂ© des parents sur celui de leurs enfants devenus adultes peut ĂȘtre envisagĂ©e du fait non seulement d’un patrimoine gĂ©nĂ©tique commun mais aussi de prĂ©fĂ©rences similaires pour la santĂ© et d’une reproduction des comportements liĂ©s Ă  la santĂ©. À partir des donnĂ©es de l’enquĂȘte Share, cette recherche Ă©tudie, pour la premiĂšre fois en France, le rĂŽle de la profession des deux parents et de leur Ă©tat de santĂ©, sur celui de leurs descendants Ă  l’ñge adulte, en contrĂŽlant pour les caractĂ©ristiques socioĂ©conomiques de ceux-ci. La comparaison des distributions de santĂ© des seniors selon le milieu social d’origine et la longĂ©vitĂ© des ascendants directs tĂ©moignent de l’existence d’inĂ©galitĂ©s des chances en santĂ© chez les seniors. Au-delĂ  de son association avec la situation sociale actuelle de l’individu, l’état de santĂ© Ă  l’ñge adulte est directement infl uencĂ© par le statut socioĂ©conomique de la mĂšre, le statut socioĂ©conomique du pĂšre ayant au contraire une infl uence indirecte passant par la dĂ©termination du statut socioĂ©conomique de l’enfant. Une transmission intergĂ©nĂ©rationnelle de la santĂ© est Ă©galement observĂ©e : la longĂ©vitĂ© relative du pĂšre et en particulier son statut vital infl uence la santĂ© Ă  l’ñge adulte.Intergenerational transmission; Economie de la santĂ©; Seniors; Origine sociale; Statistiques;

    Origine sociale et Ă©tat de santĂ© des parents : Quelle influence sur l’état de santĂ© Ă  l’ñge adulte ?.

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    Parmi les facteurs explicatifs proposĂ©s pour expliquer les inĂ©galitĂ©s sociales de santĂ©, la littĂ©rature Ă©pidĂ©miologique a rĂ©cemment mis en avant l’influence du milieu social d’origine sur l’état de santĂ© Ă  l’ñge adulte, cette influence rĂ©sultant Ă  la fois d’un effet direct des conditions de vie dans l’enfance sur la santĂ© (latency model) et d’un effet indirect passant par l’influence du milieu d’origine sur le statut socioĂ©conomique de l’enfant (pathway model). Par ailleurs, on peut supposer une influence directe de l’état de santĂ© des parents sur celui des enfants, s’expliquant non seulement par un patrimoine gĂ©nĂ©tique commun mais aussi par une transmission des comportements liĂ©s Ă  la santĂ©. A partir d’une exploitation de l‘enquĂȘte SHARE, cette recherche propose d’explorer ces trois modĂšles, pour la premiĂšre fois en France, en Ă©tudiant le rĂŽle de la profession des deux parents et de leur Ă©tat de santĂ©, sur l’état de santĂ© d’un individu Ă  l’ñge adulte, contrĂŽlĂ© par son statut socioĂ©conomique. Les rĂ©sultats montrent que l’état de santĂ© Ă  l’ñge adulte, au-delĂ  de son association avec la situation sociale actuelle de l’individu, n’est pas indĂ©pendant de l’origine sociale ni de l’état de santĂ© des parents. La santĂ© Ă  l’ñge adulte semble ĂȘtre directement influencĂ©e par le statut socioĂ©conomique de la mĂšre et l’état de santĂ© des deux parents, le statut socioĂ©conomique du pĂšre ayant au contraire une influence indirecte passant par la dĂ©termination du statut socioĂ©conomique de l’enfant. Ces rĂ©sultats suggĂšrent ainsi l’existence en France d’une inĂ©galitĂ© des chances en matiĂšre de santĂ©.EgalitĂ©s des chances; inĂ©galitĂ©s de santĂ©; transmission intergĂ©nĂ©rationnelle; early life hypothesis;

    Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs Antihypertensive Agents) Increase Replication of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6 Cells

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    Several comorbidities, including hypertension, have been associated with an increased risk of developing severe disease during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are currently some of the most widely-used drugs to control blood pressure by acting on the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). ARBs have been reported to trigger the modulation of the angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor used by the virus to penetrate susceptible cells, raising concern that such treatments may promote virus capture and increase their viral load in patients receiving ARBs therapy. In this in vitro study, we reviewed the effect of ARBs on ACE2 and AT1R expression and investigated whether treatment of permissive ACE2+/AT1R+ Vero E6 cells with ARBs alters SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro in an angiotensin II-free system. After treating the cells with the ARBs, we observed an approximate 50% relative increase in SARS-CoV-2 production in infected Vero E6 cells that correlates with the ARBs-induced up-regulation of ACE2 expression. From this data, we believe that the use of ARBs in hypertensive patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 should be carefully evaluated

    The Phospholipid Scramblases 1 and 4 Are Cellular Receptors for the Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor and Interact with CD4 at the Plasma Membrane

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    Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is secreted by epithelial cells in all the mucosal fluids such as saliva, cervical mucus, as well in the seminal liquid. At the physiological concentrations found in saliva, SLPI has a specific antiviral activity against HIV-1 that is related to the perturbation of the virus entry process at a stage posterior to the interaction of the viral surface glycoprotein with the CD4 receptor. Here, we confirm that recombinant SLPI is able to inhibit HIV-1 infection of primary T lymphocytes, and show that SLPI can also inhibit the transfer of HIV-1 virions from primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells to autologous T lymphocytes. At the molecular level, we show that SLPI is a ligand for the phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) and PLSCR4, membrane proteins that are involved in the regulation of the movements of phospholipids between the inner and outer leaflets of the plasma membrane. Interestingly, we reveal that PLSCR1 and PLSCR4 also interact directly with the CD4 receptor at the cell surface of T lymphocytes. We find that the same region of the cytoplasmic domain of PLSCR1 is involved in the binding to CD4 and SLPI. Since SLPI was able to disrupt the association between PLSCR1 and CD4, our data suggest that SLPI inhibits HIV-1 infection by modulating the interaction of the CD4 receptor with PLSCRs. These interactions may constitute new targets for antiviral intervention

    Low incidence of SARS-CoV-2, risk factors of mortality and the course of illness in the French national cohort of dialysis patients

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    The evolving SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Africa: Insights from rapidly expanding genomic surveillance

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    INTRODUCTION Investment in Africa over the past year with regard to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) sequencing has led to a massive increase in the number of sequences, which, to date, exceeds 100,000 sequences generated to track the pandemic on the continent. These sequences have profoundly affected how public health officials in Africa have navigated the COVID-19 pandemic. RATIONALE We demonstrate how the first 100,000 SARS-CoV-2 sequences from Africa have helped monitor the epidemic on the continent, how genomic surveillance expanded over the course of the pandemic, and how we adapted our sequencing methods to deal with an evolving virus. Finally, we also examine how viral lineages have spread across the continent in a phylogeographic framework to gain insights into the underlying temporal and spatial transmission dynamics for several variants of concern (VOCs). RESULTS Our results indicate that the number of countries in Africa that can sequence the virus within their own borders is growing and that this is coupled with a shorter turnaround time from the time of sampling to sequence submission. Ongoing evolution necessitated the continual updating of primer sets, and, as a result, eight primer sets were designed in tandem with viral evolution and used to ensure effective sequencing of the virus. The pandemic unfolded through multiple waves of infection that were each driven by distinct genetic lineages, with B.1-like ancestral strains associated with the first pandemic wave of infections in 2020. Successive waves on the continent were fueled by different VOCs, with Alpha and Beta cocirculating in distinct spatial patterns during the second wave and Delta and Omicron affecting the whole continent during the third and fourth waves, respectively. Phylogeographic reconstruction points toward distinct differences in viral importation and exportation patterns associated with the Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants and subvariants, when considering both Africa versus the rest of the world and viral dissemination within the continent. Our epidemiological and phylogenetic inferences therefore underscore the heterogeneous nature of the pandemic on the continent and highlight key insights and challenges, for instance, recognizing the limitations of low testing proportions. We also highlight the early warning capacity that genomic surveillance in Africa has had for the rest of the world with the detection of new lineages and variants, the most recent being the characterization of various Omicron subvariants. CONCLUSION Sustained investment for diagnostics and genomic surveillance in Africa is needed as the virus continues to evolve. This is important not only to help combat SARS-CoV-2 on the continent but also because it can be used as a platform to help address the many emerging and reemerging infectious disease threats in Africa. In particular, capacity building for local sequencing within countries or within the continent should be prioritized because this is generally associated with shorter turnaround times, providing the most benefit to local public health authorities tasked with pandemic response and mitigation and allowing for the fastest reaction to localized outbreaks. These investments are crucial for pandemic preparedness and response and will serve the health of the continent well into the 21st century

    Social Inequalities in Health-Related Behaviours : Is the grass greener on the other side ?

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    Cette thĂšse traite des inĂ©galitĂ©s sociales en matiĂšre de comportements de santĂ© tels que les modes de vie liĂ©s Ă  la santĂ© (spĂ©cifiquement, l’obĂ©sitĂ© et la consommation d’alcool) et l’utilisation des services de santĂ©, dans plusieurs pays de l’OCDE. Ce travail repose sur une approche micro-ÉconomĂ©trique et utilise un grand nombre de bases de donnĂ©es nationales. Les objectifs de cette thĂšse sont de: (1) comparer les inĂ©galitĂ©s sociales de comportements de santĂ© entre des pays ayant des caractĂ©ristiques diffĂ©rentes, (2) apporter un Ă©clairage Ă  la comprĂ©hension des disparitĂ©s sociales des comportements de santĂ©, et enfin (3) examiner comment l’auto-DĂ©claration peut affecter l’évaluation des comportements de santĂ©, et donc affecter la mesure des inĂ©galitĂ©s.This thesis deals with social inequalities in health-Related behaviours such as lifestyle risk factors for health (precisely, obesity and alcohol consumption) and the utilisation of health care services, in a number of OECD countries. This work relies on an applied micro-Economics approach, using several national health survey data. This thesis aims to (a) compare social inequalities in health-Related behaviours across countries with different settings; (b) shed light on the understanding of social disparities in health-Related behaviours; and (c) examine how self-Reporting may affect the rating of behavioural risk-Factors, and therefore affect the measurement of social inequalities

    Inégalités sociales des comportements de santé : l'herbe est-elle plus verte ailleurs ?

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    This thesis deals with social inequalities in health-Related behaviours such as lifestyle risk factors for health (precisely, obesity and alcohol consumption) and the utilisation of health care services, in a number of OECD countries. This work relies on an applied micro-Economics approach, using several national health survey data. This thesis aims to (a) compare social inequalities in health-Related behaviours across countries with different settings; (b) shed light on the understanding of social disparities in health-Related behaviours; and (c) examine how self-Reporting may affect the rating of behavioural risk-Factors, and therefore affect the measurement of social inequalities.Cette thĂšse traite des inĂ©galitĂ©s sociales en matiĂšre de comportements de santĂ© tels que les modes de vie liĂ©s Ă  la santĂ© (spĂ©cifiquement, l’obĂ©sitĂ© et la consommation d’alcool) et l’utilisation des services de santĂ©, dans plusieurs pays de l’OCDE. Ce travail repose sur une approche micro-ÉconomĂ©trique et utilise un grand nombre de bases de donnĂ©es nationales. Les objectifs de cette thĂšse sont de: (1) comparer les inĂ©galitĂ©s sociales de comportements de santĂ© entre des pays ayant des caractĂ©ristiques diffĂ©rentes, (2) apporter un Ă©clairage Ă  la comprĂ©hension des disparitĂ©s sociales des comportements de santĂ©, et enfin (3) examiner comment l’auto-DĂ©claration peut affecter l’évaluation des comportements de santĂ©, et donc affecter la mesure des inĂ©galitĂ©s
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