315 research outputs found

    Postural stability in pre-pubertal school children: sex and maturity-associated variation

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    Prepubescent children experience a dynamic developmental period marked by rapid changes in body size, shape and composition, whose magnitude depends on sex and maturity status. The purpose of this study was to analyze sex and maturity- associated variation on the postural stability at a time of rapid changes such as the pre-pubertal growth spurt. This was a cross-sectional study involving 312 children (10.8 ± 0.4 years), 152 boys and 160 girls, who were self-assessed as belonging to Tanner stages I (n= 209) and II (n=103). Postural balance control was evaluated using the single-legged flamingo balance test. Anthropometric and morphological measurements were also carried out. The more biologically mature prepubescent children expressed higher weight, body mass index, body fat percentage and endomorphic component than the less mature. However, no advantage of biologically mature children in postural stability was found compared with their less mature peers. Interestingly, girls outperformed boys in the postural stability test, but no interaction between sex and maturity status was observed. The particularity of anthropometric and morphological changes in the pre-pubertal growth spurt, together with sensorial (i.e., vestibular system) and environmental influences, may have influenced the impact of maturity status on postural stability. This could be considered important to teachers and coaches to adapt practical tasks related to maturity status and sex

    Strength training adaptations associated with an 8-week suspension training program in prepubecent boys

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    The effectiveness of suspension training (ST) on strength has not been investigated in prepubescent children yet. Thirty-eight boys (10.87±0.50 years) were randomly assigned into an experimental group (ST: n=20) to train twice a week for 8 weeks, and a control group (C: n=18; no training program). In the post-training, it was observed a significant difference and large effect size of group on training-induced explosive strength (F(1,36)=15.30, p<0.001, =0.74). Explosive strength measures significantly increased only on the ST group. Differences were observed in the 1 and 3 kg medicine ball throws (5.8 and 8.8%, respectively, p<0.001), in the counter movement vertical jump (7.2%, p<0.001), in the standing long jump (7.4%, p<0.001) and in the time-at-20m (1.2%, p<0.001). This could be considered an alternative methodology to optimize explosive strength training in school-based programs.O objetivo do estudo foi analisar os efeitos de treino de força (ST) com TRX® na força explosiva em rapazes pré-púberes. Trinta e oito rapazes (10.87±0.50 anos) foram distribuídos aleatoriamente num grupo experimental (ST: n=20) para treinar duas vezes por semana, durante 8 semanas, e um grupo de controlo (C: n=18; sem programa de treino). No pós-treino, foi observado um efeito estatisticamente significativo e de elevada dimensão do fator grupo na força explosiva induzida pelo treino (F(1,36)=15.30, p<0.001, =0.74). As medidas de força explosiva melhoraram significativamente apenas no grupo ST. Observaram-se diferenças nos lançamentos de bolas medicinais de 1 e 3 kg (5.8 e 8.8%, respetivamente, p<0.001), no salto vertical com contramovimento (7.2%, p<0.001), no salto longitudinal (7.4%, p<0.001) e no tempo de corrida de 20m (1.2%, p<0.001). O treino de força com TRX® poderá ser considerado como alternativa para otimizar o treino da força explosiva na escola

    Body fat in prepubertal boys: different training program`s designs

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    This project was supported by the National Funds through FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (UID/DTP/04045/2013) - and the European Fund for regional development (FEDER) allocated by European Union through the COMPETE 2020 Programme (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006969), and it was supported by the Project NanoSTIMA: Macro-toNano Human Sensing, Towards Integrated Multimodal Health Monitoring and Analytics, NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000016, co-financed by European Fund for Regional Development (FEDER) - NORTE 2020Research studies agreed that strength and aerobic training either combined or performed separately promote bone density, aerobic capacity, and explosive strength improvements in childhood. Nevertheless, there still is uncertainty regarding to the best training program to be implemented that efficiently improve body fat percentage. The current study aimed to compare different training program’s designs on body fat percentage in prepubertal boys.One hundred twenty-three boys (10.93 ± 0.57 years) were randomly assigned into five experimental groups to perform different training protocols for 8 weeks: strength-only (SG), aerobic-only (AG), inter-session concurrent aerobic-strength training (ASG_2), intra-session concurrent aerobic-strength training (ASG), intra-session concurrent strength-aerobic training (SAG), and a control group, no training (CG). SG, AG, ASG and SAG groups performed single sessions two days per week. ASG_2 group performed on different days each week (two and two days per week). The strength training program comprised plyometric exercises (medicine ball throws and jumps) and sprint running. The aerobic training program comprised the 20m shuttle run exercise. Body fat percentage was assessed using a body composition analyzer (Tanita TBF-300A) before and after the 8-weeks of the training program.Body fat percentage showed significant decrements from pre- to the post-training in the ASG_2 (17.6%, p=0.004), SG (16.1%, p=0.000), and SAG (17.7%, p=0.000) groups. There was an impairment in the ASG (4.2%, p=0.492) and control group CG (16.8%, p=0.000). No differences were presented in the AG (p=0.053).The order of intra-session concurrent training influenced body fat percentage changes. Moreover, performing intra-session concurrent strength and aerobic training is more useful than strength or aerobic training only and concurrent training in different sessions to decrease body fat percentage in prepubertal boys. These results have a meaningful interest to optimized school-based fat loss exercise programs in childhood

    The comparison of Imagery ability in elite, sub-elite and non-elite swimmers

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    The ability to generate and control mental images is present in all of us, but it differs from person to person. Therefore, it is important to understand that imagery ability can be changed through training and experimentation, it is not a fixed ability (Cumming &amp; Williams, 2012). The aim of this study is to compare imagery ability in elite, sub-elite and non-elite athletes in a sport which involves closed and continuous motor skills, such as swimming. 79 swimmers (male N = 37; female N = 42) at an average age of 17 took part in this study. In order to assess imagery ability, the Movement Imagery Questionnaire 3 was used, Portuguese version (Mendes et al., 2016). After analysis of the results, these show that in each and every imagery modality, the scores in the three groups differ significantly. In kinesthetic and external visual imagery the elite and sub-elite groups’ scores, although not statistically different from each other, are significantly higher than those of the non-elite group. In internal visual imagery, the differences between all the compared pairs of groups are statistically significant. The elite group got the highest scores, followed by the sub-elite group average scores and finally the non-elite group average scores. According to these results, the conclusion is that athletes with better performance show greater imagery ability and that apparently the external visual imagery proved to be the best intervention method among swimming athletes.La capacidad de controlar y generar imágenes mentales está presente en todos los individuos, pero varía de sujeto a sujeto, por lo tanto, es importante entender que la habilidad de visualización mental es una capacidad que se puede modificar con el entrenamiento y la experimentación, y no una habilidad fija (Cumming &amp; Williams, 2012; Hall, 2001). El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue el de comparar la habilidad de visualización mental en practicantes de Elite, Sub-Elite y No-Elite, en una modalidad deportiva con habilidades motoras cerradas y continuas, la natación. En este estudio participaron 79 sujetos practicantes de Natación (N = 76) (género masculino N = 37, género femenino N = 42) con una edad media de 17 años (DE = 3,1). Se definieron tres niveles de práctica, el grupo de Elite (N = 29), el grupo Sub-Elite (N = 27) y No-Elite (N = 23). Para evaluar la habilidad de visualización mental se utilizó el Movement Imagery Questionnaire - 3, versión portuguesa (Mendes et al., 2015). Después de analizar los resultados verificamos que en todas y cada una de las modalidades de visualización mental, las medias obtenidas en los tres grupos (Elite, Sub-Elite y No-Elite) muestran diferencias significativas. De acuerdo con estos resultados podemos concluir que los atletas con mejor rendimiento deportivo muestran una mejor capacidad de visualización mental y que, aparentemente, la modalidad visual externa resultó como el mejor método de intervención para practicantes de Natación.A habilidade de controlar e gerar imagens mentais está presente em todos os indivíduos, mas varia de sujeito para sujeito. Consequentemente, é importante entender que a habilidade de imagery é uma capacidade que pode ser modificável com o treino e a experimentação, e não uma habilidade fixa (Cumming &amp; Williams, 2012; Hall, 2001). O objetivo do nosso estudo foi comparar a habilidade de imagery em praticantes de Elite, Sub-Elite e Não-Elite, numa modalidade com habilidades motoras fechadas e contínuas, a Natação. Neste estudo, participaram 79 sujeitos praticantes de Natação (N = 76) (sexo masculino N = 37; sexo feminino N = 42), com uma média de idades de 17 anos (SD = 3.1). Foram definidos três níveis de prática, sendo o grupo de Elite (N = 29), o grupo Sub-Elite (N = 27) e Não-Elite (N = 23). Para avaliar a habilidade de imagery, foi utilizado o Movement Imagery Questionnaire - 3, versão portuguesa (Mendes et al., 2015). Após a análise dos resultados, verificámos que em todas e em cada uma das modalidades do imagery, as médias obtidas nos três grupos (Elite, Sub-Elite e Não-Elite) apresentam diferenças significativas. De acordo com estes resultados, podemos concluir que atletas com melhor performance desportiva revelam uma melhor capacidade de imagery e que aparentemente a modalidade visual externa se revelou como melhor método de intervenção em praticantes de Natação

    Assessing Need Satisfaction and Frustration in Portuguese Exercise Instructors: scale validity, reliabity and invariance between gender

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    Objective: The aim of the present study was to validate the Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale in Exercise for fitness instructors. Methods: Data from 477 exercise professionals (319 males, 158 females) was collected. Results: CFA supported the adapted and validated six-factor model: [χ2(237) = 1096.796, χ2/df= 4.63; B-S p &lt; .001, CFI = .930, TLI = .918, SRMR= .0366, RMSEA = .079 (CI90% = .069, .089)], assessing satisfaction and frustration of basic psychological needs in Portuguese exercise professionals. Moreover, the analysis revealed acceptable composite reliability, and construct validity of the adapted version. Results revealed nomological validity, as well as invariance between male and female. No differences were found across latent means, and magnitude effects were trivial between gender. Conclusion: These results support the use of the adapted scale in exercise professionals, showing measurement invariance between gender. This scale is able to measure how exercise professionals experience satisfaction and frustration of basic needs when prescribing exercise to individuals in fitness context. &nbsp; Key-words: self-determination theory, exercise, basic needs, interpersonal behaviors, exercise instructorsObjetivo: El objetivo del presente estudio fue validar la Escala de Satisfacción y Frustración de Necesidades Psicológicas Básicas en el Ejercicio para instructores de ejercicio físico. Métodos: Se recopilaron datos de 477 profesionales del ejercicio (319 hombres, 158 mujeres). Resultados: CFA apoyó el modelo de seis factores adaptado y validado: [χ2 (237) = 1096.796, χ2 / df = 4.63; B-S p &lt;.001, CFI = .930, TLI = .918, SRMR = .0366, RMSEA = .079 (CI90% = .069, .089)], evaluando la satisfacción y la frustración de las necesidades psicológicas básicas en los profesionales del ejercicio portugués. Además, el análisis reveló una validez en la confiabilidad compuesta, constructo y nomológica aceptables de la versión adaptada, así como invariabilidad entre hombres y mujeres. No se encontraron diferencias entre las medias latentes, y los efectos de magnitud fueron triviales entre los géneros. Conclusión: estos resultados apoyan el uso de la escala adaptada en los profesionales del ejercicio, que muestran la invariancia de la medición entre los géneros. Esta escala es capaz de medir cómo los profesionales del ejercicio experimentan la satisfacción y la frustración de las necesidades básicas, y cómo regulan los comportamientos interpersonales. &nbsp; Palabras-clave: teoría de la autodeterminación, ejercicio, necesidades básicas, comportamientos interpersonales, instructores de ejercici

    Different intensities of warm up: effects on strength training

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    This project was supported by the National Funds through FCT – Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (UID/DTP/04045/2013) – the European Fund for Regional Development (FEDER) allocated by European Union through the COMPETE 2020 Programme (POCI - 01 - 0145 - FEDER - 006969) – competitiveness and internationalization (POCI).Warm - up is considered an essential part of the exercise and training performance, preventing injuries and optimising physical activity performances (Fradkin, Zazryn & Smolig, 2010). Not much is known about the effects of preparation activities on muscle performance, and, more specifically, on strength training performance (McGowan, Pyne, Thompson & Rattray, 2015). The current study aimed to verify the effect of two different intensities of specific warm - up in a full - squat training set

    Adaptation and validation of the Portuguese version of Basic Psychological Needs Exercise Scale (BPNESp) to the sport domain and invariance across football and swimming

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    The purpose of this study was to adapt and validate the Basic Psychological Needs Exercise Scale (BPNESp) to the sport domain, and to measure model invariance across football and swimming. Athletes (n=1382; 623 football, 759 swimming) with an average age of 18.77±SD 7.04 years participated in this study. Results supported the suitability of both the first and second order models, showing that the model was well adjusted to the data. In addition, the model showed the discriminant and convergent validity and composite reliability of the factors, and was invariant between football and swimming (ΔCFI≤.01).info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Can Interpersonal Behavior Influence the Persistence and Adherence to Physical Exercise Practice in Adults? A Systematic Review

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    Objective: Motivation seems to be a fundamental indicator of long-term physical exercise adherence. Self-Determination Theory (SDT) argues that social environment plays a central role in the satisfaction of basic psychological needs, which might directly affect the quality of one's motivation. Individuals who appear to be more self-determined tend to persist longer at certain behaviors. Therefore, this body of work intends to analyze the relationship between motivational variables and behavioral outcomes in the exercise context, having as theoretical background the Self-Determination Theory.Methods: This systematic review was conducted through an electronic search on Web of Science, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO. Data such as instruments, main predictors and results were collected from studies published between 1985 and 2018. A total of 35 empirical studies were considered for a detailed analysis.Results: Results showed the relevance of autonomy support performed by exercise professionals, as well as the major contribution that these behaviors have toward the satisfaction of basic psychological needs, besides the inherent benefits of developing more autonomous regulations. According to the literature, few studies have analyzed interpersonal thwarting behavior and the way this relates to basic psychological needs' frustration. Nether less, there seems to be a negative relationship between less self-determined regulations and exercise practice.Conclusion: Despite the existence of numerous cross-sectional studies that demonstrate positive correlations between SDT and behavioral outcomes in the exercise context, longitudinal research that analyzes all six dimensions of interpersonal behaviors and their relationship with persistence and adherence to exercise proves to be crucial. However, according to this review, interventions based on SDT appear to be fundamental when it comes to promote the maintenance of a long-term exercise practice
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