42 research outputs found

    An overview of research on technological and telecommunication development

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    The scientific and professional research on technological and telecommunication development started in the second half of the 20th century as the use of new media and technologies began to cause structural business and social changes. A review of research published in the early 1980s revealed that the focus was mainly on the acceptance, usefulness and impact of new media and information technology on the information society, whereas research conducted at the turn of the century was mostly interdisciplinary and related to the effect of technological and telecommunication development on various scientific and professional fields. The focus of this paper is an overview of published research on information technology since the 1980s to date, as well as technological and telecommunication development in recent years based on the latest official published data. On the basis of previous research, it can be concluded that more attention needs to be directed to monitoring trends of ICT products and services in order to increase benefits and reduce the costs for active users, as well as improving infrastructure and providing information to attract passive users in order to reduce technological and telecommunication gap between developed, developing and underdeveloped countries

    An overview of research on technological and telecommunication development

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    The scientific and professional research on technological and telecommunication development started in the second half of the 20th century as the use of new media and technologies began to cause structural business and social changes. A review of research published in the early 1980s revealed that the focus was mainly on the acceptance, usefulness and impact of new media and information technology on the information society, whereas research conducted at the turn of the century was mostly interdisciplinary and related to the effect of technological and telecommunication development on various scientific and professional fields. The focus of this paper is an overview of published research on information technology since the 1980s to date, as well as technological and telecommunication development in recent years based on the latest official published data. On the basis of previous research, it can be concluded that more attention needs to be directed to monitoring trends of ICT products and services in order to increase benefits and reduce the costs for active users, as well as improving infrastructure and providing information to attract passive users in order to reduce technological and telecommunication gap between developed, developing and underdeveloped countries

    The role of new technologies in the decision-making process

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    Pred donositeljem odluka postavljeni su mnogo veći zahtjevi u odlučivanju no ikad prije s obzirom da je okružje donositelja odluka podložno promjenama pod utjecajem napretka i razvoja novih tehnoloÅ”kih dostignuća, umreženosti pojedinca ili organizacije unutar i prema vanjskom okružju te suvremenih nači - na komunikacije omogućivÅ”i neprestani dotok, protok, tijek i razmjenu podataka i informacija. U takvim suvremenim uvjetima proces prikupljanja, analiziranja, odabiranja podataka i informacija za donoÅ”enje kvalitetnih odluka u okviru mogućih ograničenja i raspoloživih mogućnosti, a u konačnici i donoÅ”enje odluka kao podloge za buduće privatno ili poslovno ponaÅ”anje, nije pojednostavljeno. Upotrebom novih tehnologija u procesu odlučivanja pružene su brojne mogućnosti koje olakÅ”avaju izbor odluke. Međutim, donositelj odluka ipak treba znati razlikovati kojim se znanjima valja služiti u odlučivanju, odnosno koje modele, metode, alate, sustave i postupke treba koristiti u određenim situacijama, a sve u svrhu uspjeÅ”noga odabira odluke. U radu će se podrobnije opisati teorijske postavke o odlučivanju, pojasniti model odlučivanja i proces donoÅ”enja odluka. Kako se odlučivanje može kratkoročno ili dugoročno odraziti na daljnji tijek aktivnosti donositelja u ovisnosti o ishodima koje će odabrana odluka polučiti, u radu će se razmotriti suvremena programska rjeÅ”enja koja pomažu donositeljima odluka u pojednostavljenju izbora te ujedno podrobnije pojasniti uloga novih tehnologija u procesu poslovnoga i privatnoga odlučivanja.Given the fact that a decision-making environment is subject to change due to the development of new technologies, networking of an individual or an organisation within and towards external environment as well as contemporary communication methods that facilitate a continuous inflow, outflow and exchange of data and information, the requirements set before decision-makers are more demanding than ever. In such contemporary conditions, the process of collecting, analyzing and selecting data and information for the purpose of making quality decisions depending on potential limitations and available options, and finally making decisions as the basis for future behaviour, whether of an individual or an organisation, is becoming more complex. New technologies provide a number of possibilities that facilitate the decision-making pro - cess. However, the decision-maker should still be able to choose the right models, methods, tools, systems and procedures for a particular situation, with the aim of arriving at an appropriate and timely decision. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the theoretical underpinnings of decision-making; explain the decision-making model and the decision-making process. Given the fact that decision-making can affect the course of the activities pursued by the decision-maker in the short or long term depending on the consequences of the decision, this paper will examine the latest software solutions that simplify decision- making, and clarify the role of new technologies in the process of decision-making in business and private life

    Kratkoročno kreditiranje malih poduzeća - Imex banka : zavrÅ”ni rad

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    PoduzetniÅ”tvo danas postaje sve viÅ”e specifična poslovna ali i osobna filozofija. Poduzetan je onaj koji se zna i hoće prihvatiti čega u pravo vrijeme, koji je snalažljiv, vjeÅ”t u praktičnoj provedbi ideja. Kredit je kao i poduzetnik povijesna determinanta, od primitivne robne razmjene do suvremenih bankarskih oblika financiranja. Kako bi poduzetnik funkcionirao, unatoč i zbog svoje okoline i uvjeta u kojima djeluje, važno je da stvara, a da bi stvarao treba mu novac. Bankarski kredit je dugo vremena najtraženiji, najzastupljeniji i najbolje poznat oblik financiranja, stoga se razvio velik broj njegovih oblika, koji se mogu naći u ovom radu. Imex banka jedna je od većih domaćih banaka koja kontinuirano radi na razvoju i unapređenju kreditnih potencijala i rizika. Osobito je značajna suradnja s državnim agencijama i bankama kojima se povećava pristupačnost kredita poduzetnicima, osobito onima koji pokreću gospodarstvo: obrtnicima te malim i srednjim poduzetnicima. ā€žBiti poduzetnik znači živjeti nekoliko godina na način na koji nitko ne želi kako bi mogao provesti ostatak života na način na koji većina ne može.ā€Today, entrepreneurship is becoming a very specific business and personal philosophy. An Entrepreneur iss a person who knows what to do and when to do it, along with being resourceful and skilled in the practical implementation of ideas. A loan, much ass an entrepreneur himself, is a historical determinat, from primitive commodity exchange to modern banking forms of financing. In order for an entrepreneur to function ( despite and because of their environment and the conditions they work in), it's important that they create and to create, they need money. Bank loan has long been the most sought-after, best-known from of financing, thus, a large number of its respective forms has been developed (which can be found in this paper). Imex bank is one of the largest domestic banks that has continuously been working on developing and improving credit potential and risk. Cooperation with state agencies and banks is particularly important, especially the ones that ā€žmove to economyā€œ: sole entrepreneurs and small/medium businesses. ā€žBeing an entrepreneur means living a few years in a way that nobody does. He wants to spend the rest of his life in a way that most can not.

    Kratkoročno kreditiranje malih poduzeća - Imex banka : zavrÅ”ni rad

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    PoduzetniÅ”tvo danas postaje sve viÅ”e specifična poslovna ali i osobna filozofija. Poduzetan je onaj koji se zna i hoće prihvatiti čega u pravo vrijeme, koji je snalažljiv, vjeÅ”t u praktičnoj provedbi ideja. Kredit je kao i poduzetnik povijesna determinanta, od primitivne robne razmjene do suvremenih bankarskih oblika financiranja. Kako bi poduzetnik funkcionirao, unatoč i zbog svoje okoline i uvjeta u kojima djeluje, važno je da stvara, a da bi stvarao treba mu novac. Bankarski kredit je dugo vremena najtraženiji, najzastupljeniji i najbolje poznat oblik financiranja, stoga se razvio velik broj njegovih oblika, koji se mogu naći u ovom radu. Imex banka jedna je od većih domaćih banaka koja kontinuirano radi na razvoju i unapređenju kreditnih potencijala i rizika. Osobito je značajna suradnja s državnim agencijama i bankama kojima se povećava pristupačnost kredita poduzetnicima, osobito onima koji pokreću gospodarstvo: obrtnicima te malim i srednjim poduzetnicima. ā€žBiti poduzetnik znači živjeti nekoliko godina na način na koji nitko ne želi kako bi mogao provesti ostatak života na način na koji većina ne može.ā€Today, entrepreneurship is becoming a very specific business and personal philosophy. An Entrepreneur iss a person who knows what to do and when to do it, along with being resourceful and skilled in the practical implementation of ideas. A loan, much ass an entrepreneur himself, is a historical determinat, from primitive commodity exchange to modern banking forms of financing. In order for an entrepreneur to function ( despite and because of their environment and the conditions they work in), it's important that they create and to create, they need money. Bank loan has long been the most sought-after, best-known from of financing, thus, a large number of its respective forms has been developed (which can be found in this paper). Imex bank is one of the largest domestic banks that has continuously been working on developing and improving credit potential and risk. Cooperation with state agencies and banks is particularly important, especially the ones that ā€žmove to economyā€œ: sole entrepreneurs and small/medium businesses. ā€žBeing an entrepreneur means living a few years in a way that nobody does. He wants to spend the rest of his life in a way that most can not.

    SMOKING BEHAVIORS AND LUNG CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY: A COHORT STUDY

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    Background: Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world. According to the latest available data, in the year 2012 Croatia was among 20 countries with the highest incidence of lung cancer. Although tobacco smoking is a proven cause of lung cancer, recent data show that more than one quarter of adult inhabitants of Croatia are everyday smokers. The purpose of this study was to present epidemiology and treatment modalities of lung cancer in the Department for mediastinal tumors, Clinic for lung diseases Jordanovac, and to make a comparison between the available data from Croatia and the rest of the world. Subjects and methods: The study cohort included 212 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients who had referred to our Department from January 2012 until December 2012. Features such as age, gender, cytology and histology of the tumor, stage at diagnosis and applied therapy were evaluated respectively. Results: Approximately two-thirds of all newly diagnosed lung cancers occurred in men. Out of the study cohort, 12.3% were diagnosed with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and 87.7% were diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The majority of the patients diagnosed with NSCLC had adenocarcinoma (47.9%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (33.9%) and large cell carcinoma (15%). Only a small number of patients diagnosed and treated for lung cancer in our Department had never smoked tobacco. The majority of those patients were women and the most common histological type found was adenocarcinoma. Conclusion: The number of patients who had potentially operable disease at presentation was around 10%. That is why, in most cases, therapeutic options were confined to palliative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Attention should be directed to an early detection of lung cancer patients, which could provide better treatment options and improve overall survival

    Sex-Specific Age-Related Changes of Information Processing Rate Indicators during Childhood and Adolescence

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    Despite the relevant findings on non-average information processing rate (IPR) indicators-intelligence relation, and on age-related changes of some of these indicators during aging, the research on sex-specific age-related changes of these indicators during childhood and adolescence are lacking. In a transversal study, 1197 school children (598 girls) aged 8-18 have been individually measured on 5 IPR indicators ā€“ two averages (mean_t, median_t) and three non-averages (min_t, max_t, sd_t). The results corroborated the expected non-linear changes of average IPR indicators in the observed developmental period, whereby the sex difference in related developmental patterns was detected: marked age-related decrement in girls (Fmean_t=178.25, Fmedian_t=168.32, dfage=10, dferror=587, p<0.01) ceased at the age of 12, and in boys (Fmean_t=160.98, Fmedian_t=156.30, dfage=10, dferror=588, p<0.01) around the age of 13-14, after which progress in both sexes gradually ceased by the age of 18 and was less pronounced in girls. The justifiability of separate, average and non-average, IPR indicators application was corroborated by their distribution form differences, by mutual, predominantly low and medium correlations, by the different intensity of their developmental changes and by their different ability to detect sex differences. Generally, similar non-linear age-related decrements of non-average indicators were registered, but they showed mutual intensity differences at specific ages and sex difference in developmental patterns was detected, analogously to average indicators: [Fmin_t=123.60, Fmax_t=87.25, Fsd_t=29.88, dfage=10, dferror=587, p<0.01]female; [Fmin_t=110.51, Fmax_t=76.74, Fsd_t=22.62, dfage=10, dferror=587, p<0.01]male . Systematic sex differences in the whole observed period were obtained only in two indicators: girls showed minor sd_t (F=10.375, dfsex=1, dferror=1175, p<0.01), and boys showed minor min_t (F=7.744, dfsex=1, dferror=1175, p<0.01). In specific age groups, a number of sex differences were obtained that are explainable by two possible mechanisms: earlier maturation in girls and sex bias of the IPR task content. For all registered phenomena, the theoretical and/or empirical explanations were offered from the domain of sex specific intellectual, motor and neural development, and it has been shown that non-average IPR indicators do register sex and age differences, which average indicators do not manage to register

    Infekcije goveda izazvane Salmonella vrstama

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    Salmonellosis is an important zoonosis manifested in very different clinical picture including enteritis, septicemia, abortion, and combination of disease syndromes. Only 10 to 12 serovars of the Salmonella spp. are capable to causing disease in cattle including Salmonella dublin, S.typhimurium and S. bovismorbificans. In contrast to most other Salmonella serovars, S.dublin shows a high degree of host specificity for cattle. Infection of cattle with S.dublin may be inapparent with carrier state and disease tends to become endemic on certain farms. .Salmoneloza je važna zoonoza sa veoma različitom kliničkom slikom koja manifestuje enteritisom, septikemijom, abortusima i kombinovanim simptomima bolesti. Samo 10 do 12 serovarijeteta Salmonella spp. dovodi do infekcije goveda uključujući Salmonella dublin, S.typhimurium and S. bovismorbificans.

    COMPARATIVE URINARY BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ORAL ANTIBIOTICS AGAINST GRAM-POSITIVE PATHOGENS

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    U kliničkim bakterioloÅ”kim laboratorijima antibakterijska aktivnost plazme određuje se in vitro testiranjem, obično disk-difuzijskom metodom. Međutim treba uzeti u obzir da in vitro testiranje ne odražava uvijek djelotvornost antibiotika in vivo. U ovom istraživanju ispitana je baktericidna aktivnost uzoraka urina dobivenih nakon peroralne primjene pojedinačne doze oralnog antibiotika prema relevantnim gram-pozitivnim urinarnim patogenima. Linezolid je imao zadovoljavajuće baktericidne titrove tijekom cijelog razdoblja testiranja prema svim testiranim gram-pozitivnim kokima, dok su fluorokinoloni pokazivali visoku i perzistentnu baktericidnu aktivnost prema stafilokokima, a znatno slabiju aktivnost prema enterokokima. Prema rezultatima ex vivo pokusa, amoksicilin bi se mogao preporučiti kao lijek izbora jedino za infekcije koje uzrokuje Enterococcus faecalis. Amoksicilin u kombinaciji s klavulanskom kiselinom mogao bi se razmatrati kao terapijska opcija kod infekcija koje uzrokuju Staphylococcus saprophyticus i E. faecalis. Testirani stariji cefalosporini pokazali su se djelotvornima samo prema S. saprophyticus. Njihov je nedostatak kratko poluvrijeme eliminacije u urinu, Å”to rezultira brzim sniženjem urinarnih baktericidnih titrova tijekom ispitivanog razdoblja. Nadalje, nemaju aktivnost prema enterokokima zbog njihove intrinzične rezistencije na cefalosporine.In routine bacteriological laboratories the antibacterial activity of antibiotics is determined by in vitro testing, usually by disk-diffusion test. However, in vitro testing does not always reflect antibacterial efficiency of antibiotics in vivo. In this investigation, the urine samples obtained in a single oral dose pharmacokinetic study were examined for their bactericidal activity against a range of relevant Gram-positive urinary tract pathogens. Urinary bactericidal activity of linezolid had been previously compared with ciprofloxacin but not with other oral antibiotics such as b-lactams. Linezolid showed satisfactory urinary bactericidal titres throughout the whole testing period against all Gram-positive cocci. Fluoroquinolones displayed high and persisting levels of urinary bactericidal activity against staphylococci, but their activity against enterococci was weaker. According to the results of ex-vivo testing amoxycillin could be recommended only for infections caused by E. faecalis. Amoxycillin combined with clavulanic acid can be considered as a therapeutic option for infections caused by S. saprophyticus and E. faecalis. Older cephalosporins had high titres only against S. saprophyticus. Their drawback is a short elimination half-time in urine resulting in rapid decrease of urinary bactericidal titers during dosing interval. Furthermore, they do not show activity against enterococci due to their intrinsic resistance to cephalosporins

    SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS INFLUENCE PAIN PERCEPTION IN NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER PATIENTS

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    Uvod: Karcinom pluća najčeŔća je maligna bolest u muÅ”karaca, a u žena se nalazi na trećem mjestu. Nedvojbeno je da oboljeli, uz ostale simptome, trpe bol. Svrha rada: Istraživanje je provedeno kako bi se utvrdilo postoji li utjecaj Ā­sociodemografskih karakteristika na percepciju boli mjerenoj analogno-vizualnom ljestvicom među oboljelima od karciĀ­noma pluća ne-malih stanica. Metode: Ovo primijenjeno, opservacijsko, unicentrično istraživanje imalo je dva kraka: 1) presječni krak, i 2) prospektivni, kohortni krak. Rezultati: U istraživanje je ukupno uključen 41 bolesnik s medijanom dobi 61 (56ā€“68) godina. Ovo istraživanje pokazalo je da subjektivna percepcija boli jest povezana s dobi i urbaniziranoŔću Ā­mjesta boravka te kako su s intenzivnijim subjektivnim osjećajem boli bile povezane mlađa dob (ā‰¤ 60 godina vs. > 60 Ā­godina, p=0,026) i gradska naselja (grad vs. selo, p=0,031). Dob je bila neovisno i statistički značajno povezana i s relativnom promjenom boli nakon terapije (Wald=5,914; ss=1; p=0,015). Zaključci: Koliko dob, spol, način življenja, mjesto stanovanja pa i sam mentalitet mogu utjecati na doživljaj boli vrijedno je uzeti u obzir kako bi se takvim pacijentima omogućila Å”to bolju skrb i kvaliteta života u godinama borbe s malignom boleŔću.Background: Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in men and the third most common in women worldwide. Pain in these patients is a leading and debilitating symptom, among others. Objectives: The aim of this research was to determine the relationship between the sociodemographic characteristics and pain perception, as measured by Ā­visual analogue scale for pain, in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: This observational, single centre study Ā­included both a cross-sectional and prospective cohort design. Results: Forty-one patients with a median age of 61 years (range 56ā€“68) were included. This study showed that subjective perception of pain is related to age and place of residence. Younger patients (ā‰¤ 60 years old, p=0.026) and those residing in cities (p=0.031) reported feeling worse pain. Age was independently and statistically associated with the relative relief of pain after analgesic therapy (Wald=5.914; ss=1; p=0.015). Conclusion: Age, lifestyle, place of residence, and mentality should be considered when evaluating pain perception in patients suffering from chronic pain related to malignant disease in order to provide the best possible medical treatment with the goal of improving quality of life
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