1,064 research outputs found

    Optimizing the Timing of Aortic Valve Surgery: A Multiparametric Approach

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    Search for the B_{d,s}^0 -> K^{*0} K_{S}^0 decays at LHCb

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    The search for the previously unobserved \BdstoKstarKs decays is performed at the LHCb experiment, using proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of s=7\sqrt{s}=7 TeV. These decays provide a fertile ground in the search of New Physics in \CP violation measurements. The data sample was recorded in 2011 and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 1 fb^{-1}. The first observation of the B_{s}^0 -> K^{*0} K_{S}^0 decay is reported. A measurement of the limit and the branching fraction relative to the B_{d}^0 -> K^{*0} K_{S}^0 decay yields the following results: BF(B_{d}^0 -> K^{*0} K_{S}^0)/BF(B_{d,s}^0 -> K_{S}^0 \pi^+ \pi^-) < 0.12 (0.15) at 90\% (95\%) CL BF(B_{s}^0 -> K^{*0} K_{S}^0)/BF(B_{d,s}^0 -> K_{S}^0 \pi^+ \pi^-) = 0.22 \pm 0.06(stat) \pm 0.02(syst) \pm 0.01(f_s/f_d), where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second systematic and the third comes from the uncertainty on the hadronisation fraction

    Transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis

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    Transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR-CA) is an increasingly recognized cause of heart failure (HF) and mortality worldwide. Advances in non-invasive diagnosis, coupled with the development of effective treatments, have shifted ATTR-CA from a rare and untreatable disease to a relatively prevalent condition that clinicians should consider on a daily basis. Amyloid fibril formation results from age-related failure of homoeostatic mechanisms in wild-type ATTR (ATTRwt) amyloidosis (non-hereditary form) or destabilizing mutations in variant ATTR (ATTRv) amyloidosis (hereditary form). Longitudinal large-scale studies in the United States suggest an incidence of cardiac amyloidosis in the contemporary era of 17 per 100 000, which has increased from a previous estimate of 0.5 per 100 000, which was almost certainly due to misdiagnosis and underestimated. The presence and degree of cardiac involvement is the leading cause of mortality both in ATTRwt and ATTRv amyloidosis, and can be identified in up to 15% of patients hospitalized for HF with preserved ejection fraction. Associated features, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, can preceed by several years the development of symptomatic HF and may serve as early disease markers. Echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance raise suspicion of disease and might offer markers of treatment response at a myocardial level, such as extracellular volume quantification. Radionuclide scintigraphy with ‘bone’ tracers coupled with biochemical tests may differentiate ATTR from light chain amyloidosis. Therapies able to slow or halt ATTR-CA progression and increase survival are now available. In this evolving scenario, early disease recognition is paramount to derive the greatest benefit from treatment

    RNA Targeting and Gene Editing Strategies for Transthyretin Amyloidosis

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    Transthyretin (TTR) is a tetrameric protein synthesized primarily by the liver. TTR can misfold into pathogenic ATTR amyloid fibrils that deposit in the nerves and heart, causing a progressive and debilitating polyneuropathy (PN) and life-threatening cardiomyopathy (CM). Therapeutic strategies, which are aimed at reducing ongoing ATTR amyloid fibrillogenesis, include stabilization of the circulating TTR tetramer or reduction of TTR synthesis. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) or antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) drugs are highly effective at disrupting the complementary mRNA and inhibiting TTR synthesis. Since their development, patisiran (siRNA), vutrisiran (siRNA) and inotersen (ASO) have all been licensed for treatment of ATTR-PN, and early data suggest these drugs may have efficacy in treating ATTR-CM. An ongoing phase 3 clinical trial will evaluate the efficacy of eplontersen (ASO) in the treatment of both ATTR-PN and ATTR-CM, and a recent phase 1 trial demonstrated the safety of novel in vivo CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing therapy in patients with ATTR amyloidosis. Recent results from trials of gene silencer and gene-editing therapies suggest these novel therapeutic agents have the potential to substantially alter the landscape of treatment for ATTR amyloidosis. Their success has already changed the perception of ATTR amyloidosis from a universally progressive and fatal disease to one that is treatable through availability of highly specific and effective disease-modifying therapies. However, important questions remain including long-term safety of these drugs, potential for off-target gene editing, and how best to monitor the cardiac response to treatment.Kindly check and confirm the processed running title.This is correct

    Standardising Care and Treatment of Transthyretin Amyloid Cardiomyopathy

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    Transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR-CA) has been traditionally considered a rare and inexorably fatal condition. ATTR-CA now is an increasingly recognised cause of heart failure and mortality worldwide with effective pharmacological treatments. Advances in non-invasive diagnosis, coupled with the development of effective treatments, have transformed the diagnosis of ATTR-CA, which is now possible without recourse to endomyocardial biopsy in around 70% of cases. Many patients are now diagnosed at an earlier stage. Echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance have enabled identification of patients with possible ATTR-CA and more accurate prognostic stratification. Therapies able to slow or halt ATTR-CA progression and increase survival are now available and there is also evidence that patients may benefit from specific conventional heart failure medications. A wide horizon of possibilities is unfolding and awaits discovery

    Imaging-Guided Treatment for Cardiac Amyloidosis

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    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will explore the role of cardiac imaging in guiding treatment in the two most commonly encountered subtypes of cardiac amyloidosis (immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis [AL] and transthyretin amyloidosis [ATTR]). RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in multi-parametric cardiac imaging involving a combination of bone scintigraphy, echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging have resulted in earlier diagnosis and initiation of treatment, while the evolution of techniques such as longitudinal strain and extracellular volume quantification allow clinicians to track individuals' response to treatment. Imaging developments have led to a deeper understanding of the disease process and treatment mechanisms, which in combination result in improved patient outcomes. The rapidly expanding treatment regimens for cardiac amyloidosis have led to an even greater reliance on cardiac imaging to help establish an accurate diagnosis, monitor treatment response and aid the adjustment of treatment strategies accordingly

    Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Parametric Mapping Techniques: Clinical Applications and Limitations

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    Purpose of Review: Parametric mapping represents a significant innovation in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) tissue characterisation, allowing the quantification of myocardial changes based on changes on T1, T2 and T2* relaxation times and extracellular volume (ECV). Its clinical use is rapidly expanding, but it requires availability of dedicated equipment as well as expertise in image acquisition and analysis. This review focuses on the principles of CMR parametric mapping, its current clinical applications, important limitations, as well as future directions of this technique in cardiovascular medicine. Recent Findings: There is increasing evidence that CMR parametric mapping techniques provide accurate diagnostic and prognostic tools that can be applied to and support the clinical management of patients with a range of cardiovascular disease. Summary: The unique capability of CMR myocardial tissue characterisation in cardiovascular diseases has further expanded by the introduction of parametric mapping. Its use in clinical practice presents opportunities but has also limitations

    Automated Detection of Left Ventricle in Arterial Input Function Images for Inline Perfusion Mapping using Deep Learning: A study of 15,000 Patients

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    Quantification of myocardial perfusion has the potential to improve detection of regional and global flow reduction. Significant effort has been made to automate the workflow, where one essential step is the arterial input function (AIF) extraction. Since failure here invalidates quantification, high accuracy is required. For this purpose, this study presents a robust AIF detection method using the convolutional neural net (CNN) model. CNN models were trained by assembling 25,027 scans (N=12,984 patients) from three hospitals, seven scanners. A test set of 5,721 scans (N=2,805 patients) evaluated model performance. The 2D+T AIF time series was inputted into CNN. Two variations were investigated: a) Two Classes (2CS) for background and foreground (LV mask); b) Three Classes (3CS) for background, foreground LV and RV. Final model was deployed on MR scanners via the Gadgetron InlineAI. Model loading time on MR scanner was ~340ms and applying it took ~180ms. The 3CS model successfully detect LV for 99.98% of all test cases (1 failed out of 5,721 cases). The mean Dice ratio for 3CS was 0.87+/-0.08 with 92.0% of all test cases having Dice ratio >0.75, while the 2CS model gave lower Dice of 0.82+/-0.22 (P<1e-5). Extracted AIF signals using CNN were further compared to manual ground-truth for foot-time, peak-time, first-pass duration, peak value and area-under-curve. No significant differences were found for all features (P>0.2). This study proposed, validated, and deployed a robust CNN solution to detect the LV for the extraction of the AIF signal used in fully automated perfusion flow mapping. A very large data cohort was assembled and resulting models were deployed to MR scanners for fully inline AI in clinical hospitals.Comment: Accepted by Magnetic Resonance in Medicine on March 30, 202

    Changing paradigm in the treatment of amyloidosis: From disease-modifying drugs to anti-fibril therapy.

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    Cardiac amyloidosis is a rare, debilitating, and usually fatal disease increasingly recognized in clinical practice despite patients presenting with non-specific symptoms of cardiomyopathy. The current standard of care (SoC) focuses on preventing further amyloid formation and deposition, either with anti-plasma cell dyscrasia (anti-PCD) therapies in light-chain (AL) amyloidosis or stabilizers of transthyretin (TTR) in transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR). The SoC is supplemented by therapies to treat the complications arising from organ dysfunction; for example, heart failure, arrhythmia, and proteinuria. Advancements in treatments have improved patient survival, especially for those whose disease is detected and for whom treatment is initiated at an early stage. However, there still are many unmet medical needs, particularly for patients with severe disease for whom morbidity and mortality remain high. There currently are no approved treatments to reverse amyloid infiltration and deplete the amyloid fibrils already deposited in organs, which can continue to cause progressive dysfunction. Anti-fibril therapies aimed at removing the deposited fibrils are being investigated for safety and efficacy in improving outcomes for patients with severe disease. However, there is no clinical evidence yet that removing deposited amyloid fibrils will improve organ function, thereby improving quality of life or extending life. Nevertheless, anti-fibril therapies are actively being investigated in clinical trials to evaluate their ability to complement and synergize with current SoC.This manuscript was funded by Alexion AstraZeneca Rare Disease. The funder was not involved in the study design, collection, analysis, interpretation of data, the writing of this article, or the decision to submit it for publication.S
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