115 research outputs found

    Unification and Dark Matter in a Minimal Scalar Extension of the Standard Model

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    The six Higgs doublet model is a minimal extension of the Standard Model that addresses dark matter and gauge coupling unification. Another Higgs doublet in a 5 representation of a discrete symmetry group, such as S_6, is added to the SM. The lightest components of the 5-Higgs are neutral, stable and serve as dark matter so long as the discrete symmetry is not broken. Direct and indirect detection signals, as well as collider signatures are discussed. The five-fold multiplicity of the dark matter decreases its mass and typically helps make the dark matter more visible in upcoming experiments.Comment: 10 pages, 7 figures; added references; corrected typo

    Dark Matter Debris Flows in the Milky Way

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    We show that subhalos falling into the Milky Way create a flow of tidally-stripped debris particles near the galactic center with characteristic velocity behavior. In the Via Lactea-II N-body simulation, this unvirialized component constitutes a few percent of the local density and has velocities peaked at 340 km/s in the solar neighborhood. Such velocity substructure has important implications for surveys of low-metallicity stars, as well as direct detection experiments sensitive to dark matter with large scattering thresholds.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures; v2 includes new plots illustrating the radial and tangential velocities of non-debris particles; v3 includes some additional minor edit

    Observation of the skin-depth effect on the Casimir force between metallic surfaces

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    We have performed comparative measurements of the Casimir force between a metallic plate and a transparent sphere coated with metallic films of different thicknesses. We have observed that, if the thickness of the coating is less than the skin-depth of the electromagnetic modes that mostly contribute to the interaction, the force is significantly smaller than that measured with a thick bulk-like film. Our results provide the first direct evidence of the skin-depth effect on the Casimir force between metallic surfaces.Comment: submitted for publication on Dec. 10, 2004. 3 figure

    Parity Violation in Composite Inelastic Dark Matter Models

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    Recent experimental results indicate that the dark matter sector may have a non-minimal structure with a spectrum of states and interactions. Inelastic scattering has received particular attention in light of DAMA's annual modulation signal. Composite inelastic dark matter (CiDM) provides a dynamical origin for the mass splittings in inelastic dark matter models. We show that higher dimensional operators in the CiDM Lagrangian lead to an admixture of inelastic and elastic scattering in the presence of parity violation. This scenario is consistent with direct detection experiments, even when parity violation is nearly maximal. We present an effective field theory description of such models and discuss the constraints from direct detection experiments. The CiDM model with parity violation has non-trivial phenomenology because of the multiple scattering channels that are allowed.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figure

    Semi-visible Jets: Dark Matter Undercover at the LHC

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    The dark matter may be a composite particle that is accessible via a weakly coupled portal. If these hidden-sector states are produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), they would undergo a QCD-like shower. This would result in a spray of stable invisible dark matter along with unstable states that decay back to the Standard Model. Such "semi-visible" jets arise, for example, when their production and decay are driven by a leptophobic Z′Z' resonance; the resulting signature is characterized by significant missing energy aligned along the direction of one of the jets. These events are vetoed by the current suite of searches employed by the LHC, resulting in low acceptance. This Letter will demonstrate that the transverse mass---computed using the final-state jets and the missing energy---provides a powerful discriminator between the signal and the QCD background. Assuming that the Z′Z' couples to the Standard Model quarks with the same strength as the Z0Z^0, the proposed search can discover (exclude) Z′Z' masses up to 2.5 TeV (3.5 TeV) with 100 fb−1^{-1} of 14 TeV data at the LHC.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures. v3: Supplementary material and references added. Model changed from scalar to fermionic dark quarks and figures updated accordingly. Conclusions unchange

    Dark-Matter Harmonics Beyond Annual Modulation

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    The count rate at dark-matter direct-detection experiments should modulate annually due to the motion of the Earth around the Sun. We show that higher-frequency modulations, including daily modulation, are also present and in some cases are nearly as strong as the annual modulation. These higher-order modes are particularly relevant if (i) the dark matter is light, O(10) GeV, (ii) the scattering is inelastic, or (iii) velocity substructure is present; for these cases, the higher-frequency modes are potentially observable at current and ton-scale detectors. We derive simple expressions for the harmonic modes as functions of the astrophysical and geophysical parameters describing the Earth's orbit, using an updated expression for the Earth's velocity that corrects a common error in the literature. For an isotropic halo velocity distribution, certain ratios of the modes are approximately constant as a function of nuclear recoil energy. Anisotropic distributions can also leave observable features in the harmonic spectrum. Consequently, the higher-order harmonic modes are a powerful tool for identifying a potential signal from interactions with the Galactic dark-matter halo.Comment: 40 pages, 10 figures; v2 refs added, minor improvements; v3 refs added, minor improvements, JCAP versio

    Distinguishing Dark Matter from Unresolved Point Sources in the Inner Galaxy with Photon Statistics

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    Data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope suggests that there is an extended excess of GeV gamma-ray photons in the Inner Galaxy. Identifying potential astrophysical sources that contribute to this excess is an important step in verifying whether the signal originates from annihilating dark matter. In this paper, we focus on the potential contribution of unresolved point sources, such as millisecond pulsars (MSPs). We propose that the statistics of the photons---in particular, the flux probability density function (PDF) of the photon counts below the point-source detection threshold---can potentially distinguish between the dark-matter and point-source interpretations. We calculate the flux PDF via the method of generating functions for these two models of the excess. Working in the framework of Bayesian model comparison, we then demonstrate that the flux PDF can potentially provide evidence for an unresolved MSP-like point-source population.Comment: 27 pages, 8 figures; v2, reference added and other minor change

    Measuring Anisotropies in the Cosmic Neutrino Background

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    Neutrino capture on tritium has emerged as a promising method for detecting the cosmic neutrino background (CvB). We show that relic neutrinos are captured most readily when their spin vectors are anti-aligned with the polarization axis of the tritium nuclei and when they approach along the direction of polarization. As a result, CvB observatories may measure anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino velocity and spin distributions by polarizing the tritium targets. A small dipole anisotropy in the CvB is expected due to the peculiar velocity of the lab frame with respect to the cosmic frame and due to late-time gravitational effects. The PTOLEMY experiment, a tritium observatory currently under construction, should observe a nearly isotropic background. This would serve as a strong test of the cosmological origin of a potential signal. The polarized-target measurements may also constrain non-standard neutrino interactions that would induce larger anisotropies and help discriminate between Majorana versus Dirac neutrinos.Comment: 7 pages, 2 figure
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