29 research outputs found

    TLR3-expressing cells promote CD8 T cell responses to local HSV-1 infection.

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    <p>WT and TLR3<sup>−/−</sup> mice were infected in the footpad with HSV-1 (1×10<sup>5</sup> pfu). Total CD4 (A) and CD8 (B) T cells were analyzed in DLN on day 7 p.i. (C) Numbers of IFN-γ-producing CD8 T cells in DLN on day 7 p.i. after restimulation with HSV gB peptide. Data are combined from two independent experiments. Statistical significance is indicated by <i>p</i> values.</p

    SeV replication is enhanced in MDA5<sup>−/−</sup> mice.

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    <p>WT and MDA5<sup>−/−</sup> mice infected with 200K pfu SeV were assessed for A) SeV replication by IF detection of SeV antigens and by real time PCR analysis of B) SeV genome and C) SeV N gene expression. N = 4, error bars refer to SEM, * P<0.05; ** P<0.005.</p

    MDA5 is required for sustained expression of cytokines in response to SeV infection.

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    <p>Real time PCR analysis of whole lung homogenates obtained from WT and MDA5<sup>−/−</sup> mice infected with 200K pfu SeV for expression levels of A) <i>Ifn-α2</i>, B) <i>Ifn-β</i>, C) <i>Ifn-γ</i>, D) <i>Il-28b</i>, E) <i>Tnf-α</i>, F) <i>Il-1β</i>, G) <i>Il-6 and</i> H) <i>Il-10</i> mRNA. N = 4, error bars refer to SEM, * P<0.05, ** P<0.00001.</p

    MDA5 deficiency leads to increased MNV titers <i>in vitro</i>.

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    <p>Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells from wild type (WT), MDA5−/−, or TLR3−/− mice were inoculated with MNV at an MOI of 5 (A) or 0.05 (B) or pre-treated with 20 U IFNα and then inoculated with an MOI of 0.05 (C). Viral titers were done at 6 hour time-points for each sample and statistical significance was determined using student's t test. There was no significant difference between WT and TLR3−/− titers, statistical significance is marked between WT and MDA5−/− titers where * = p<0.05. Data shown is the average of four independent experiments (A and B) or three independent experiments (C). In (D) supernatants from WT BMDC infected at MOI 0.05 were harvested at various time-points and tested for IFNβ by ELISA. Data shown is the average of three independent experiments.</p

    Infection with SeV causes increased morbidity and mortality in MDA5<sup>−/−</sup> mice.

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    <p>WT and MDA5<sup>−/−</sup> mice were infected with 200K pfu SeV and assessed for A) loss of body weight over the PI period and B) mucus production (PAS reactivity). C) WT and MDA5<sup>−/−</sup> mice were infected with 200K, 400K and 600K pfu SeV and assessed for viability. N = 4–16 mice, error bars refer to SEM, * P≤0.05.</p
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