199 research outputs found

    Impact of the Credit Rating Agencies on the Financial Crisis 2007ÔÇô2009

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    The paper presents some ethical aspects of the credit rating agencies (CRAs) market in the light of the latest economic crisis of 2008. A historical background is also shown and how the CRA market emerged. It is emphasised how the functioning of CRAs contributed to the outbreak of the crisis and what were the consequences of over- or underestimated rating grades. The downgrading of a country has a significant influence on the deterioration of the economic condition. Simultaneously, it afflicts the citizens, who have to pay for it e.g. with higher tax rates. It is believed that overestimated ratings lead to a speculative bubble, which ends up with the crisis. The paper indicates the problems connected with the way that CRAs operate and how they relate to business ethics. The fact that those institutions are profitprofile entities, which earn their income from clients, whose financial instruments are assessed, may bring about a conflict of interests. Moreover, it is outlined how the governmental policies of countries left CRAs without any particular control, which in the end was a significant factor, too. Finally, some potential solutions are discussed, and how the approach of CRA managers should change in order to prevent the market from similar situations in the future

    Polska Kronika Filmowa as a source for research on contemporary Polish architecture

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    The materials used by architectural historians to research the post-war period are very limited, and the available archive resources are incomplete and dispersed. In this context, of special significance are other forms of visual materials that documented the spatial reality of the communist period. Documentary films, and in particular the Polska Kronika Filmowa [Polish Film Chronicle] newsreel, can make an an important contribution to and a resource for historical research on contemporary Polish architecture. This text contains methodological reflections on the role of film studying the history of contemporary architecture. It describes the new research options, including the ability to recreate original spatial phenomena, and also the contemporary techniques and technology as well as the educational dimension of the Polish Film Chronicle. In this context, it is especially interesting to compare the documentary material from the Chronicle with other archival material, e.g. drawings, plans and photographs. This method provides an additional opportunity for a fuller and more objective recreation of space in 3D. This ÔÇťreverse modellingÔÇŁ can be used to restore or preserve the original condition of structures, or even to rebuild ones no longer existing

    Poisson limit theorems for the Robinson-Schensted correspondence and for the multi-line Hammersley process

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    We consider Robinson-Schensted-Knuth algorithm applied to a random input and study the growth of the bottom rows of the corresponding Young diagrams. We prove multidimensional Poisson limit theorem for the resulting Plancherel growth process. In this way we extend the result of Aldous and Diaconis to more than just one row. This result can be interpreted as convergence of the multi-line Hammersley process to its stationary distribution which is given by a collection of independent Poisson point processes.Comment: version 2: 41 pages, the proofs are now more detaile

    English as a lingua franca in marketing: Focus on the use of anglicisms in Italian and Polish

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    openThis dissertation aims to analyse the worldwide spread and use of the English language as a lingua franca, and the different experiences of acquisition of anglicisms by the Italian and Polish languages, in particular in the semantic field of economics and marketing. The economic sector is one of those areas, in which the influence of English is felt most throughout almost all languages. This phenomenon can be traced back to the influence of the United States as an economic power, as well as to the globalisation of work marketplace and marketing, and to the spread of digital technologies that allow people and nations, who are geographically distant from each other, to be brought into contact. English has been considered the lingua franca of global communication for decades now and is usually also used by non-native speakers when they need to communicate in a language known to all. This enormous diffusion of the English language in the majority of economic sectors has as a consequence a notable linguistic interference between the speakersÔÇÖ native language and English, while the number of anglicisms introduced into all languages appears to be constantly increasing, especially when it comes to terms relating to the technological and economic sphere. This occurrence has also been noticed, among many, in the Italian and Polish languages, but there are differences between the two. This work thus aims to analyse the ways in which such phenomenon occurs, the differences between these two experiences, as well as the similarities

    Mass concentration in a nonlocal model of clonal selection

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    Self-renewal is a constitutive property of stem cells. Testing the cancer stem cell hypothesis requires investigation of the impact of self-renewal on cancer expansion. To understand better this impact, we propose a mathematical model describing dynamics of a continuum of cell clones structured by the self-renewal potential. The model is an extension of the finite multi-compartment models of interactions between normal and cancer cells in acute leukemias. It takes a form of a system of integro-differential equations with a nonlinear and nonlocal coupling, which describes regulatory feedback loops in cell proliferation and differentiation process. We show that such coupling leads to mass concentration in points corresponding to maximum of the self-renewal potential and the model solutions tend asymptotically to a linear combination of Dirac measures. Furthermore, using a Lyapunov function constructed for a finite dimensional counterpart of the model, we prove that the total mass of the solution converges to a globally stable equilibrium. Additionally, we show stability of the model in space of positive Radon measures equipped with flat metric. The analytical results are illustrated by numerical simulations

    Local waste management ÔÇô the case of ÔÇ×BESKIDÔÇŁ Company

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    An action plan of creating local waste management structures is presented in the article. There are described advantages and disadvantages of autonomic waste management. The local waste management has been presented on a case of the ÔÇťBeskidÔÇŁ Company active in ┼╗ywiecki District from 1994. Benefits from the local waste management are crucial not only for the environmental protection (natural sources protection, space saving) but also for commercial plants that use the recyclable waste for the production (cheap resource, decline in production costs) and for householders (fees for the disposal of mixed waste decrease)

    A New Shipping Canal Through the Vistula Spit as a Political and Transportation Project

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    In September 2022, a new shipping canal was opened connecting the Polish part of the Vistula Lagoon to the Baltic Sea. Largely political, the project links the lagoon and the port in Elbl─ůg to the southern part of the Baltic, independent of the Russian Federation. In addition, its economic dimension enables the handling of small ships, as well as supporting tourism and yachting without the need to pass through the Russian-controlled Pi┼éawa Strait. The scale of the new canal is relatively smallÔÇöone and a half kilometre long and 25 metres wide. Nonetheless, it is sufficient for the navigation of small marine vessels of up to five-metre draft. The shipping canal through the Vistula Split is certainly not as important as the Corinth or North Sea Canals, still, it frees maritime and tourist traffic from Russian jurisdiction. The planned key port in the Vistula Lagoon is the port in Elbl─ůg, a historic city that was once a member of the Hanseatic League, which brought together all the major cities of the Baltic Sea basin in the 14th and 15th centuries. The purpose of this article is to present the projectÔÇÖs historical context, its urban, technical, and shipping solutions, as well as the correlations between the new transport development and its anticipated impact on the environment (including the natural environment). The findings are complemented by a PESTEL analysis which shows the leading trends that are relevant to the implementation of the project in the region. The analysis identified areas that have a significant effect on the social, political, and economic settings of the new canal

    Testing word embeddings for Polish

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    Testing word embeddings for Polish Distributional Semantics postulates the representation of word meaning in the form of numeric vectors which represent words which occur in context in large text data. This paper addresses the problem of constructing such models for the Polish language. The paper compares the effectiveness of models based on lemmas and forms created with Continuous Bag of Words (CBOW) and skip-gram approaches based on different Polish corpora. For the purposes of this comparison, the results of two typical tasks solved with the help of distributional semantics, i.e. synonymy and analogy recognition, are compared. The results show that it is not possible to identify one universal approach to vector creation applicable to various tasks. The most important feature is the quality and size of the data, but different strategy choices can also lead to significantly different results. ┬á Testowanie wektorowych reprezentacji dystrybucyjnych s┼é├│w j─Özyka polskiego Semantyka dystrybucyjna opiera si─Ö na za┼éo┼╝eniu, ┼╝e znaczenie s┼é├│w wyra┼╝one jest za pomoc─ů wektor├│w reprezentuj─ůcych, w spos├│b bezpo┼Ťredni b─ůd┼║ po┼Ťredni, konteksty, w jakich s┼éowo to jest u┼╝ywane w du┼╝ym zbiorze tekst├│w. Niniejszy artyku┼é dotyczy ewaluacji wielu takich modeli skonstruowanych dla j─Özyka polskiego. W pracy por├│wnano skuteczno┼Ť─ç modeli opartych na lematach i formach s┼é├│w, utworzonych przy wykorzystaniu sieci neuronowych na danych z dw├│ch r├│┼╝nych korpus├│w j─Özyka polskiego. Ewaluacji dokonano na podstawie wynik├│w dw├│ch typowych zada┼ä rozwi─ůzywanych za pomoc─ů metod semantyki dystrybucyjnej, tzn. rozpoznania wyst─Öpowania synonimii i analogii mi─Ödzy konkretnymi parami s┼é├│w. Uzyskane wyniki dowodz─ů, ┼╝e nie mo┼╝na wskaza─ç jednego uniwersalnego podej┼Ťcia do tworzenia modeli dystrybucyjnych, gdy┼╝ ich skuteczno┼Ť─ç jest r├│┼╝na w zale┼╝no┼Ťci od zastosowania. Najwa┼╝niejsz─ů cech─ů wp┼éywaj─ůc─ů na jako┼Ť─ç modelu jest jako┼Ť─ç oraz rozmiar danych, ale wybory r├│┼╝nych strategii uczenia sieci mog─ů r├│wnie┼╝ prowadzi─ç do istotnie odmiennych wynik├│w
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