55 research outputs found

    Revisiting Economic Growth in Colombia: A Microeconomic Perspective

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    This paper revisits economic growth in Colombia using the growth diagnostics methodology proposed by Hausmann, Rodrik and Velasco (2005), to identify the most binding constraints for economic growth and the policies that, if implemented, can have the largest positive impact. To rank public policy priorities the HRV (2005) methodological approach is complemented with an econometric analysis of micro-data, aimed at exploring the impact that the various potential constraints to growth have had on firm-level investment decisions. The data shows economic reactivation in areas with falling violence. Results from analysis at the microeconomic level, however, give a particular spin to this conclusion by showing that investment decisions at the firm level are also explained by the restoration of some form of public order connected to the cessation of paramilitary violence and not only by the reduction of violence. From a public policy perspective, perhaps the most relevant result is the confirmation that in Colombia investment decisions are negatively affected by the cost of financing. Empirical results, robust across model specifications, single out the provision of access to financing at fair prices as a policy priority for economic growth, relevant across country regions and independent of whether uncertainties from poor protection to property rights are resolved.

    Frecuencia y distribucion de cancer oral en el Hospital Regional de Talca y Hospital Base de Curico entre los a√Īos 1991 y 1992

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    96 p.Se realiz√≥ un estudio descriptivo de c√°ncer oral en el Hospital Regional de Talca y Hospital Base de Curico entre los anos 1991 a 2002. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la frecuencia y distribuci√≥n de los casos de c√°ncer oral diagnosticados en dichos establecimientos. Un total de 75 casos de c√°ncer oral fueron diagnosticados; siendo el genero masculino el mas afectado, con 58 casos (77%) que el genero femenino, con 17 casos (23%), la proporcion hombre-mujer fue de 3.4:1. El grupo etareo mas afectado por c√°ncer oral fue el de 61 a 80 altos de edad (56%). La localizaci√≥n mas frecuente de los casos de c√°ncer oral fue el labio (33%), seguido por el paladar (22%) y la lengua (16%). El tipo histol√≥gico mas com√ļn fue el carcinoma espinocelular, con un 74% del total de las neoplasias orales. Los casos de c√°ncer oral representaron el 1.8% del total de las neoplasias malignas del organismo. Seria importante aplicar en la regi√≥n programas de prevenci√≥n, pesquisa y diagnostico precoz, como parte del examen cl√≠nico realizado por Odont√≥logos y M√©dicos, sobre todo en personas mayores de 40 anos, con h√°bitos de tabaco y alcohol aumentados

    Secado de l√ļcuma (Pouteria obovata) empleando la t√©cnica de Ventana RefractanteTM

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    Lucuma is a fruit that is experiencing a growing trend in commercial ground into flour for use in the food industry. This study aimed to obtain lucuma flour using the method of refractive window drying and evaluate the effect of the thickness of lucuma pulp and drying time on flour moisture and color. It was used a Composite Design Central Rotary (DCCR) with time between 10 and 50 min and the thickness between 1 and 3 mm. A fixed temperature of 95 ¬įC and mylar film (metallized polyethylene terephthalate) as a refractory film of 0.1 mm was used. It was determined that the optimal conditions for lucuma flour (9.8% moisture) with this technique is when the thickness was 1.3 mm and with a time of 15 minutes; in these conditions, the effective diffusivity of water is 2.53 E-7 m2/s.La l√ļcuma es una fruta que experimenta una tendencia creciente a nivel comercial en forma de harina para su empleo en la industria alimentaria. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo obtener harina de l√ļcuma utilizando el m√©todo de secado por ventana refractante y evaluar el efecto del espesor de la pulpa de l√ļcuma y el tiempo de secado en la humedad y el color de la harina. Fue utilizado un Dise√Īo Compuesto Central Rotable (DCCR) con el tiempo entre 10 y 50 min y el espesor entre 1 y 3 mm. Se emple√≥ una temperatura fija de 95¬įC y l√°mina mylar (polietileno de tereftalato metalizado) como pel√≠cula refractante de 0,1 mm. Se determin√≥ que las condiciones ideales para obtener harina de l√ļcuma (9,8% de humedad) con esta t√©cnica se da cuando el espesor fue 1,3 mm y con un tiempo de 15 minutos; a estas condiciones la difusividad efectiva del agua es de 2,53E-7 m2/s

    Secado de l√ļcuma (Pouteria obovata) empleando la t√©cnica de Ventana RefractanteTM

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    Lucuma is a fruit that is experiencing a growing trend in commercial ground into flour for use in the food industry. This study aimed to obtain lucuma flour using the method of refractive window drying and evaluate the effect of the thickness of lucuma pulp and drying time on flour moisture and color. It was used a Composite Design Central Rotary (DCCR) with time between 10 and 50 min and the thickness between 1 and 3 mm. A fixed temperature of 95 ¬įC and mylar film (metallized polyethylene terephthalate) as a refractory film of 0.1 mm was used. It was determined that the optimal conditions for lucuma flour (9.8% moisture) with this technique is when the thickness was 1.3 mm and with a time of 15 minutes; in these conditions, the effective diffusivity of water is 2.53 E-7 m2/s.La l√ļcuma es una fruta que experimenta una tendencia creciente a nivel comercial en forma de harina para su empleo en la industria alimentaria. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo obtener harina de l√ļcuma utilizando el m√©todo de secado por ventana refractante y evaluar el efecto del espesor de la pulpa de l√ļcuma y el tiempo de secado en la humedad y el color de la harina. Fue utilizado un Dise√Īo Compuesto Central Rotable (DCCR) con el tiempo entre 10 y 50 min y el espesor entre 1 y 3 mm. Se emple√≥ una temperatura fija de 95¬įC y l√°mina mylar (polietileno de tereftalato metalizado) como pel√≠cula refractante de 0,1 mm. Se determin√≥ que las condiciones ideales para obtener harina de l√ļcuma (9,8% de humedad) con esta t√©cnica se da cuando el espesor fue 1,3 mm y con un tiempo de 15 minutos; a estas condiciones la difusividad efectiva del agua es de 2,53E-7 m2/s

    Higher levels of physical fitness are associated with a reduced risk of suffering sarcopenic obesity and better perceived health among elderly. The EXERNET multi-center study

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    Objective: To evaluate the associations between physical fitness levels, health related quality of life (HRQoL) and sarcopenic obesity (SO) and to analyze the usefulness of several physical fitness tests as a screening tool for detecting elderly people with an increased risk of suffering SO. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of a population-based sample. Setting: Non-institutionalized Spanish elderly participating in the EXERNET multi-centre study. Participants: 2747 elderly subjects aged 65 and older. Measurements: Body weight, height and body mass index were evaluated in each subject. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Four SO groups were created based on percentage of body fat and relative muscle mass; 1) normal group, 2) sarcopenic group, 3) obesity group and 4) SO group. Physical fitness was evaluated using 8 tests (balance, lower and upper body strength, lower and upper body flexibility, agility, walking speed and aerobic capacity). Three tertiles were created for each test based on the calculated scores. HRQoL was assessed using the EuroQol visual analogue scale. Results: Participants with SO showed lower physical fitness levels compared with normal subjects. Better balance, agility, and aerobic capacity were associated to a lower risk of suffering SO in the fittest men (odds ratio < 0.30). In women, better balance, walking speed, and aerobic capacity were associated to a lower risk of suffering SO in the fittest women (odds ratio < 0.21) Superior perceived health was associated with better physical fitness performance. Conclusions: Higher levels of physical fitness were associated with a reduced risk of suffering SO and better perceived health among elderly. SO elderly people have lower physical functional levels than healthy counterparts

    Competencia social como predictor de éxito escolar

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    En este artículo se hace una revisión exhaustiva de la literatura sobre la relación entre las competencias sociales y el éxito académico. Analiza como las competencias sociales (cooperación, responsabilidad, asertividad, empatía y autocontrol) influyen en el éxito escolar de los estudiantes y plantea que, a través del desarrollo de estas competencias dentro de la comunidad educativa, se pueden crear en las instituciones educativas, factores protectores que permitan el incremento del éxito escolar.This article has done an exhaustive review of the literature on the relationship between social competences and academic success. Analyze how social competences (cooperation, responsibility, assertiveness, empathy and self-control) impact students' academic success indicating that growth in social competences fosters the development of protective factors in students, that in turn, influence learning and achievemen

    Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: A pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants

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    © The Author(s) 2018. Background: Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure. Methods: We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20-29 years to 70-79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probittransformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group- and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence-mean association, to the change in prevalence of raised blood pressure. Results: In 2005-16, at the same level of population mean SBP and DBP, men and women in South Asia and in Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa would have the highest prevalence of raised blood pressure, and men and women in the highincome Asia Pacific and high-income Western regions would have the lowest. In most region-sex-age groups where the prevalence of raised blood pressure declined, one half or more of the decline was due to the decline in mean blood pressure. Where prevalence of raised blood pressure has increased, the change was entirely driven by increasing mean blood pressure, offset partly by the change in the prevalence-mean association. Conclusions: Change in mean blood pressure is the main driver of the worldwide change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure, but change in the high-blood-pressure tail of the distribution has also contributed to the change in prevalence, especially in older age groups

    Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol

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    High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries(1,2). However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world(3) and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health(4,5). However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol-which is a marker of cardiovascular riskchanged from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million-4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.Peer reviewe

    Height and body-mass index trajectories of school-aged children and adolescents from 1985 to 2019 in 200 countries and territories: a pooled analysis of 2181 population-based studies with 65 million participants

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    Summary Background Comparable global data on health and nutrition of school-aged children and adolescents are scarce. We aimed to estimate age trajectories and time trends in mean height and mean body-mass index (BMI), which measures weight gain beyond what is expected from height gain, for school-aged children and adolescents. Methods For this pooled analysis, we used a database of cardiometabolic risk factors collated by the Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Collaboration. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1985 to 2019 in mean height and mean BMI in 1-year age groups for ages 5‚Äď19 years. The model allowed for non-linear changes over time in mean height and mean BMI and for non-linear changes with age of children and adolescents, including periods of rapid growth during adolescence. Findings We pooled data from 2181 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in 65 million participants in 200 countries and territories. In 2019, we estimated a difference of 20 cm or higher in mean height of 19-year-old adolescents between countries with the tallest populations (the Netherlands, Montenegro, Estonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina for boys; and the Netherlands, Montenegro, Denmark, and Iceland for girls) and those with the shortest populations (Timor-Leste, Laos, Solomon Islands, and Papua New Guinea for boys; and Guatemala, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Timor-Leste for girls). In the same year, the difference between the highest mean BMI (in Pacific island countries, Kuwait, Bahrain, The Bahamas, Chile, the USA, and New Zealand for both boys and girls and in South Africa for girls) and lowest mean BMI (in India, Bangladesh, Timor-Leste, Ethiopia, and Chad for boys and girls; and in Japan and Romania for girls) was approximately 9‚Äď10 kg/m2. In some countries, children aged 5 years started with healthier height or BMI than the global median and, in some cases, as healthy as the best performing countries, but they became progressively less healthy compared with their comparators as they grew older by not growing as tall (eg, boys in Austria and Barbados, and girls in Belgium and Puerto Rico) or gaining too much weight for their height (eg, girls and boys in Kuwait, Bahrain, Fiji, Jamaica, and Mexico; and girls in South Africa and New Zealand). In other countries, growing children overtook the height of their comparators (eg, Latvia, Czech Republic, Morocco, and Iran) or curbed their weight gain (eg, Italy, France, and Croatia) in late childhood and adolescence. When changes in both height and BMI were considered, girls in South Korea, Vietnam, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and some central Asian countries (eg, Armenia and Azerbaijan), and boys in central and western Europe (eg, Portugal, Denmark, Poland, and Montenegro) had the healthiest changes in anthropometric status over the past 3¬∑5 decades because, compared with children and adolescents in other countries, they had a much larger gain in height than they did in BMI. The unhealthiest changes‚ÄĒgaining too little height, too much weight for their height compared with children in other countries, or both‚ÄĒoccurred in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, New Zealand, and the USA for boys and girls; in Malaysia and some Pacific island nations for boys; and in Mexico for girls. Interpretation The height and BMI trajectories over age and time of school-aged children and adolescents are highly variable across countries, which indicates heterogeneous nutritional quality and lifelong health advantages and risks
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